Week 3: Professionalism Continued and The War of 1812
Week 3: Professionalism Continued and The War of 1812 HIST 2051-001
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan 1/26 & 1/28 Beginnings of Professionalism Cont. The Free States and the Slave States as of 1860 o North has a lot more railroad than the south, greater logistical advantage Communication Revolution: o Telegraph, Pony express (only for a couple of years in parts of the nation), newspaper expansion It’s 1783. What should the military strategy of the young United States be? o What kind of army would you design? Navy? British might invade along the coast along the Atlantic, but they are also in the Caribbean. o Questions before we begin: What is the army going to have to do? What is the task? The defensive army is exhausted at the end of the Revolution. We picked up land west of the colonies, need to meet resistance to controlling that land. The Ohio valley is a point of importance. And there are still up in Canada and, until 1796, still British forts in the new territory. o State militias instead of a big standing army Can’t afford it, because we can’t get the states to agree on taxing authority Army problems: o Funding – who’s paying for what? o Composition – what kind of forces putting together o Mission – What are they going to do? o British – irritated they lost the war; need forces that can fight the professional army o Indians – their land is part of the new territory; need forces to best fight their style of warfare o Leadership (Civilian/Military) – how much control does leadership command? (no commander in chief yet, so no unity of command) Sentient on a Peace Establishment -1783 o Small regular army (2631) o Militia Federal standard But optional in the states Volunteer and common militia o Federal arsenals and factories First both established in 1794 o Military academy – West Point Originally engineering school, because they are building forts for the defense Political problem o Washington: regular troops or we face disaster o Congress: standing armies are against principles of republican government The Army and Society o Sir John Hackett: The people get out of the army what they ask of it, and what they ask for usually reflects what kind of country it is. (The Profession of Arms, 1986) Small force because small country afraid of powerful government – Revolution The Northern Frontier: 1783-1812: British forts in the United states in Detroit, Niagara, and into New England; Indian battles o Congress should have been thinking about defense and skill o October 1790 – Josiah Harmer led regulars and militia against Indians in western Ohio. Militia were not well trained, didn’t even know how to load their muskets. Beaten and forced to retreat to Fort Washington. o Sinclair led a militia/regular army in 1791 and suffered defeat at St. Clair’s o Miami Indians inflicted about 900 casualties, most suffered at hands of natives up till this time Washington’s War: 1790-1795 o Confederation of Miami, Shawnee, Delaware, and Wyandot Indians Defending the Ohio country encouraged by the British Led by Blue Jacket of the Shawnee and the Little Turtle of the Miami o Command issue: nobody has a clear idea of what the mission of the army is Results: so-so results from a so-so force; half-baked militia Election of military leader (Mayor, pastor, local leader, no military qualities in most cases) o Battle of Kekionga (Harmers Defeat) – Oct. 20-22, 1790 In numbers, the army was feeling a greater effect Natives (1050), Army (540) Natives: 120-150 in casualties Army: 129 KIA, 94 WIA o Battle of Wabash (St. Clair’s Defeat) – 4 Nov 1791 Natives (1000) vs. Army (1000) casualties not equal N: 61 Casualties A: 623 KIA or POW, 250 WIA, plus 57 Civilians and women KIA o Not likely congress is going to get money for broken military o Anthony Wayne placed in command of 5200 persons “Legion of the United States”, established new forts, and fort recovery at Maumee rapids and St. Clair Defeated Indians at the Battle of Fallen Timbers (20 Aug 1794). Indians relied on back-up from British, which they didn’t receive. Indians forced to sign peace treaty (Treaty of Grenville – 3 Aug 1795) and they lose the area of Ohio. British also suffered as their influence waned (Wayned, lol), and they abandoned their forts in the Ohio territory. America made it known they could make an army and defend their territory Jefferson and Madison’s Views – first political switch in government in the world that doesn’t involve bloodshed o Government: Federal government should support individual liberty, but should have little to do with the promotion of industry or the economy. Government is essentially passive and negative – should be limited to its power and scope o Economy: the US should continue to be and agrigation republic. Faith not in industry, but in the virtue of the landholder-farmer Jefferson makes the Louisiana purchase and doubles the size of the states in one action, struggles intellectually with constitution giving president abilities (if it’s not written, then he can’t do it), but he does it anyways (like buying Louisiana) o Louisiana purchase: why Jefferson bought it, and why Napoleon sold it Napoleon was up to his eyeballs in war and need the money to continue it. Out to conquer Europe, didn’t think of holding the land in America when he could sell it and dominate Europe. o Republican Defense Policy: Jefferson Administration (1800-1808) Hippies or Pragmatists? Reduce standing army (budget) Establish USMA at West Point and “republican-ize” officer corps Wants the army to reflect his political policy Create gunboat navy: “Mosquito fleet” Benjamin Stotter – big gunboat navy Jefferson wipes that out, creates one-gun boats to patrol closely to the coast Build stone masonry fortresses along the coast If the British to attack by sea, and when they get past the mosquitoes, they are met by stone forts Economic sanctions in response to British outrages When British started to pick on our merchant ships in the Atlantic, imposed boycotts, and stopped doing deals with the British (doesn’t work, more shoots ourselves in the foot) What’s the British case? Justification: British say they are doing it because that’s where the royal navy seamen are deserting to, simply pulling the merchants over and raided them in order to take back our deserters shanghai legitimate American sailors and being impressed into Royal navy o Wat going on in Europe affects the Americans, who’s going to control the Atlantic? Needed to be better than the French or Spanish o Small gunboats can’t do anything to stop it Hippies (Peace, head in the clouds/sand) or pragmatists (building a navy we can afford to build, supplement with forts) Doing the best they can or sticking their head in the sand? Forts: Based on Vauban’s forts and concepts (influential through all of Europe) Who's got the advantage between shore forts and sea boats? Bases: don’t have a limited supply of ammunition and supplies, more men on land than what can fit on ships; men on ships have to run a landing party and can get shot from land forts What else is going on? o Establishment of West Point o War? With France o Westward expansion Lewis and Clark, Zebulon Pike; Louisiana Purchase; Napoleonic wars Conclusion: George Washington (Kind of a big Deal), Changes in the concepts of the militia, value of USMA (training of professional army), Tactics vs. the Indians (Professional vs. Guerilla) Objectives: o Analyze American military policy from 1783-1860 as beginning of professionalism o Training across the board, not much success yet, just getting the tools to fight well o Need to resolve taxing issue to raise money to fund these things o President can’t make decision for small boats because that’s all he can afford, he needs to be able to afford what’s necessary o Discuss arming the new nation from 1783-1815 Describe the status of the peacetime military establishment following the revolutionary war Describe the developments from providing for a permanent military establishment o Discuss the War of 1812: Describe the events that lead to the declaration of war against Great Britain Identify Objectives of the British offensives in 1814 Bonus information: Marine corps: revolution 1775 – Disbanded after the Revolution along with the continental navy, brought back the 1790’s to fight the French when the United States sought to reign the debt to the French. We agreed to pay the money back, but then their monarchy toppled so we argued that the people we owed no longer existed. The French began picking on merchant ships in the Atlantic. The Marine corps is reformed and organized to fight amphibious battles. First success is against th the Barbary pirates (shores of Tripoli) in the 18 century. 1812 and Leading to Mexico The War of 1812 Embargo act against the British o was all we could afford to do at this point. Commercial boycott, like what we did up to the revolution. Some success, Stamp act and Sugar act repealed, in the Revolution. o Doesn’t work this time around, more of a financial shot in the foot o British attacks continue up through the war of 1812 Affect: o Shapes leaders o Shaped armed forces into a professional army o Victories encourage vigorous territory control Had plans to take Canada from the British. How different would the country be if we had all the land above Mexico? o Manifest destiny o Shift in British-American relationships: closes bloody hostilities between the two Solid relationship with the British, no longer enemies, reference her as a Mother country and us as successful offspring country Main problems/grievances o Restrictions of trade with Europe o British impressment Continues into 1812 Only way British consider they can defeat Napoleon Goal to cut off French trade and keep Atlantic open to themselves Federalist and Republicans o Federalists: active central argument. Little power to society, supported by the British No linear relationship with any parties still around today Thought we couldn't win against the British, so why should we fight to begin with? After the war is on, they are trying to bring it to a rapid end by continuing political opposition to the war (in Congress and in the States) Problem in the states in that we are reliant on the militia, who were used in the revolution to intimidate people into political support. Support in New England in 1812 was low Strongest in New England (Paul and Samuel Adams) right by the Canadian border and the British o Republicans: democratic society, supported by the French Linear genealogy of today’s democratic party In control of Congress at the time, in support of going to war against the British o The French Republic’s decision to go to war on Austria in 1792 sparked the creation of Federalist and Republican parties Time Line – Significant Events of the war o Battles: June 22, 1807 – HMS Leopard engages USS Chesapeake Dec. 1807 – Congress passes Embargo Act June 18, 1812 – US declares war on Britain Aug, 19, 1812 – USS Constitution defeats HMS Guerriere Sept. 10, 1813 – Commander Perry earns US victory at Lake Erie Aug. 24, 1814 – British burn Washington D.C. Sept. 13-14, 1814 – Successful defense of Fort McHenry Dec. 24, 1814 – Treaty of Ghent signed Jan. 8, 1815 – Andrew Jackson wins the battle of New Orleans o War is in phases; three or two and one-half 1812-1813 – achieving some successes, British not engaged in Canada because they re-engaged in France Second part: British come back and are dominating War over with Treaty of Ghent Concluding: Jackson’s victory at the battle of New Orleans The Objectives o British: Protect Canada from the invasion and stop American expansion, naval blockade of American port cities o American: capture Canadian territory, go on a naval offensive to disrupt trade o Native Americans: play both sides o What would have improved each side’s results? (Tactics, princ. Of war, etc.) Americans: go with the bigger ships (Stotter) instead of the mosquito ships (Jefferson); united politically instead of separated into Federals and Republicans (someone always does not want to go to war, never completely united); Logistics: fortresses we can rely on, British: aren’t completely reliant on shipping supplies because they have resources in Canada War of 1812 – Resources and o British: At war with France 7000 regulars in Canada A long way across the pond Largest Navy in the World Alliance with the Tecumseh (Indian Leader upset about land incursions in Ohio and Indiana) o Americans: 11744 men Unprepared and untrained Navy = 20 ship Disunity in raising an arm and wanting to go to war o Invasion of Washington Dc comes as a surprise: the Madisons are in the process of hosting a formal dinner, receive news, and Dolly Madison takes the portrait of Washington, but dinner (40 people) is left on the table and the British troops eat the food before burning the white house WWII: Germans stop at resources and eat things they haven’t seen since before he war Good and Bad Leadership: o Neither side is really successful on the battlefield o Could have been Better: Objective: British distraction at the beginning may have cost them the war Security: Securing the shores, The British were able to get in and burn down the white house Mass: more troops in DC could have taken us, fewer troops in France and used them in the US Gen William Hull – let the opportunity of capturing a fort go, and the British fortified in the stall o British outmaneuvered him and backed him back into Detroit, taken prisoner (court marshaled after the war) Logistics: o Separated Fronts: Harder then to fight on two fronts, compare to WWII or today; ho has technology helped us support multiple fronts?) o British transportation of troops and equipment o No good supply routes o Contractor problems: we contracted for supplies with private businesses, payment and delay of delivery, leads to establishment of Quartermaster, still business with contractors but problems not nearly as big now o How might have better: if either side had rail transportation, better control of rivers, several things could have led to better situations Lundy’s Lane o Gen. Riall and Gen Drummond vs. Gen Brown, Gen Scott, and Commander Chauncey (July 5) Brown failed to pursue British and they were able to rally forces (July 25) Both sides had been reinforced by the end of the month Who’s the victor? Probably the Americans, we don’t attack Canada again because we were not successful here Battle of New Orleans o Gen Pakenham vs. Gen. Jackson War is already over, but communication hadn't reached Jackson yet (January 8, 1815) We save face as part of the outcome, was a draw before Jackson’s triumph, then we have bragging rights that we beat the British again Madison gets the blame for the missteps of the war, portrayed as a weak president, defined by insubordinate cabinet members, unwilling to take the tough decisions to keep us in the war and achieve the victory. Other say he was not pushed into the war but was willing to go into hostilities even before congress. Military lack of stability, cohesion. Republicans exacerbated by financial problems, not much tax revenue to afford a good military. 1811 congress refused to renew the charter to the first American bank. Bak considered by many an aristocratic institution, only for the wealthy. Once war began, congress was slow to make taxes to pay for it, 1819 is a first capital crunch, could no longer borrow or move money around. Ultimately defeated on National debt. Ironically the US is able to pay overseas bond holders, because of the British bank brothers, end of the day we owe he credit of the US to the British. Toward a Professional Army o Larger peacetime army, expanding navy and coastal provinces (to prevent burning of capital) investment in infrastructure and the American Bank. Army emerges as a more professional service. Military academy making leaders for later. Winfield Scott important for next several years, wounded during the war. Lessons from 1812-1814: o Joint operations o Outstanding artillery and engineers but weak infantry o Supplying the force in the field o Flaws in the militia system o Army reorganizes after the war, makes stronger force, 10,000 men, reorganizing districts, secretary for war, general staff beginnings, West Point and coastal forts improvements Organizing a standing Army o 10000 men strong - Madison 3220 Jefferson o John C. Calhoun “Expansible army” concept Maintain a basic organization able to respond when necessary, but without big standing army in peace time, as long as we maintain a command structure down to small unit levels; officer corps seemingly bigger than we need in peacetime so we have the structure we need in times of war (pull in the enlisted men). Officers will know what they are doing, and do it quickly Concept (1819) through end of 19 beginning of 20h century Commanding general of the army Depot system for supply General recruiting v. regimental recruiting Surgeon general Weather updates Other improvements and education American Military thought (1815-1860) o Prof. Dennis Hart Mahan – naval theorist o Jomini - deputy of Napoleon, major military thinker Concentration, interior line, unity of command, offensive, decisive point, surprise, levels of war, annihilation, logistics (lines of operation), timeless principles, his points become nine points of command o Gen. Henry W. Halleck – army leader Going west: o Forts and Explorers – success of Lewis and Clark o Protecting trade routes o Enforcing federal authority o More Indian problems Dragoons and calvary Black hawk Second Seminole war 183501842 Army as enforcers of policy Texas and prelude to War o Independence from Mexico – march 1836 o Annexation to the US? Problems with Mexico Practice of slavery, during the time of having an equal amount of free and slave states, and maintaining congressional balance o Rebel fighting o Expansion policies and the presidential election of 1844 Caught up more and more in manifest destiny, expansion all the way to Pacific. James K. Polk one of 4 or 5 most important presidents because he settles border disputes of Canada, picks the war with Mexico and winds up victory against Mexicans and largest single piece of land after the Louisiana purchase
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