New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Evolution notes 1/20/16

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Leanna Widhalm

Evolution notes 1/20/16 BIOL 312

Marketplace > University of North Dakota > Biology > BIOL 312 > Evolution notes 1 20 16
Leanna Widhalm
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

History of the field, Charles Darwin, etc.
Professor Simmons
Class Notes
Biology, evolution, University of North Dakota
25 ?




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER"
Israel Casper V

Popular in Evolution

Popular in Biology

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leanna Widhalm on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 312 at University of North Dakota taught by Professor Simmons in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Evolution in Biology at University of North Dakota.


Reviews for Evolution notes 1/20/16

Star Star Star Star Star

I had to miss class because of a doctors appointment and these notes were a LIFESAVER

-Israel Casper V


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/30/16
nd  Extra Credit – 2 essay on exams, half of the possible points towards homework grade. o Final – answer as many of the essays to get up to half points for extra credit also.  Charles Robert Darwin o Evolution dates all way back to Aristotle. o Darwin just put a different spin to it and got recognition o Feb 12, 1809-April 19, 1882. o Voyage of the Beagle  Dec. 2, 1831-Oct. 29, 1836. Found fossils on top of the Andes Mountains. o published Origin of the Species that was published in 1859 o Natural Selection  Individuals within populations are variable  Individual variation is heritable  In every generation some offspring are more successful and surviving and reproducing  Survival and reproduction are not random. Individuals that survive and reproduce are selected. o “winning the evolution race” – reproducing and creating offspring, to be completely successful and “fit” is for those offspring to have offspring o Reproduction is not random, need to have a certain trait to make desirable. o “The Modern Synthesis”  Mutation creates new alleles (characteristics). Independent assortment and segregation shuffle these alleles to provide variation in traits.  Individuals pass on alleles to offspring  Some individuals are more successful and surviving and reproducing in each generation  The individuals that survive and reproduce the most have alleles and allelic combinations that cause their success by adaptation to their environment o Viruses, bacteria, pathogens are successful in evolution, adapting and changing throughout environments  What do we do when antibiotics don’t work anymore? o 700,000 people worldwide die from drug-resistant bacteria o Without antibiotics – 1 out of 6 people estimated would die o No surgeries o By 2050, would be 10 million deaths a year if antibiotics aren’t changed to get bacterial infections under control o 45% of pharmaceuticals are prescribed don’t work o 80% of antibiotics are sold to animals, not humans  If we stopped antibiotics for a small amount of time, then the susceptible bacteria to the bacteria would increase and therefore when antibiotics are used, they have a greater effect of defeating the bacteria.  The Evolution of Virulence o Virulence: the damage is caused on a host by a pathogen. This damage is the result of the pathogen taking energy/nutrients from the host and from the toxic by-products produced by the pathogen.  Short-Sighted Evolution – the pathogen isn’t adapted well-enough to survive long enough to be spread to other individuals and tend to kill the host/environment (polio). It’s not well-adapted to the host/environment  Human genomes have been co-evolving with other organisms and therefore have become part of our genomes.  Trade-off hypothesis o Lethality vs. spread – trading off of the pathogen, so if it becomes more lethal, then it will be less able to spread to other organisms. o Vectors? o Direct Contact?  If the disease is more spread out through the water, the more lethal it is.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.