Evolution notes 1/20/16
Evolution notes 1/20/16 BIOL 312
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leanna Widhalm on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 312 at University of North Dakota taught by Professor Simmons in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Evolution in Biology at University of North Dakota.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
nd Extra Credit – 2 essay on exams, half of the possible points towards homework grade. o Final – answer as many of the essays to get up to half points for extra credit also. Charles Robert Darwin o Evolution dates all way back to Aristotle. o Darwin just put a different spin to it and got recognition o Feb 12, 1809-April 19, 1882. o Voyage of the Beagle Dec. 2, 1831-Oct. 29, 1836. Found fossils on top of the Andes Mountains. o published Origin of the Species that was published in 1859 o Natural Selection Individuals within populations are variable Individual variation is heritable In every generation some offspring are more successful and surviving and reproducing Survival and reproduction are not random. Individuals that survive and reproduce are selected. o “winning the evolution race” – reproducing and creating offspring, to be completely successful and “fit” is for those offspring to have offspring o Reproduction is not random, need to have a certain trait to make desirable. o “The Modern Synthesis” Mutation creates new alleles (characteristics). Independent assortment and segregation shuffle these alleles to provide variation in traits. Individuals pass on alleles to offspring Some individuals are more successful and surviving and reproducing in each generation The individuals that survive and reproduce the most have alleles and allelic combinations that cause their success by adaptation to their environment o Viruses, bacteria, pathogens are successful in evolution, adapting and changing throughout environments What do we do when antibiotics don’t work anymore? o 700,000 people worldwide die from drug-resistant bacteria o Without antibiotics – 1 out of 6 people estimated would die o No surgeries o By 2050, would be 10 million deaths a year if antibiotics aren’t changed to get bacterial infections under control o 45% of pharmaceuticals are prescribed don’t work o 80% of antibiotics are sold to animals, not humans If we stopped antibiotics for a small amount of time, then the susceptible bacteria to the bacteria would increase and therefore when antibiotics are used, they have a greater effect of defeating the bacteria. The Evolution of Virulence o Virulence: the damage is caused on a host by a pathogen. This damage is the result of the pathogen taking energy/nutrients from the host and from the toxic by-products produced by the pathogen. Short-Sighted Evolution – the pathogen isn’t adapted well-enough to survive long enough to be spread to other individuals and tend to kill the host/environment (polio). It’s not well-adapted to the host/environment Human genomes have been co-evolving with other organisms and therefore have become part of our genomes. Trade-off hypothesis o Lethality vs. spread – trading off of the pathogen, so if it becomes more lethal, then it will be less able to spread to other organisms. o Vectors? o Direct Contact? If the disease is more spread out through the water, the more lethal it is.
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