Introduction to Industrial and Organization Psychology Week 1 Lecture Notes
Introduction to Industrial and Organization Psychology Week 1 Lecture Notes PSY 3320
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina Goad on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3320 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Patrick McCarthy in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology Week 1 Lecture Notes From 1/25/16 1/25/16: Introduction The purpose of Psychology is to comprehend the reason why people act and think the way they do in order to hopefully make improvements to the quality of life people experience. Industrial and Organizational Psychology has the same purpose but more focused on problems found in the workplace. A large amount of our lives are spent at work or doing something work related, so this field is relevant to almost everyone. Industrial and Organizational Psychology also can relate to things experienced outside of work as well. An Industrial and Organizational Psychologist’s normally consists of a focus on developing and applying principles from scientific research. A common misconception of what an Industrial and Organizational Psychologist does is that most people think that they serve as a counselor of the personal issues of employees. The truth is that these psychologists often do significant work in the Human Resources department. The industrial side of Industrial and Organizational psychology is focused on the proper use of human resources, making management more efficient, and creating an efficient job selection process. The organizational side of Industrial and Organizational psychology is centered on the understanding of behavior and increasing job satisfaction and wellbeing of employees, relating to the employees as humans instead of resources, understanding attitudes, patterns of actions, and stress of employees as a management practice. There is many instances of overlapping ideals between the industrial and organizational side of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. With a Bachelor’s degree, careers in the field of Industrial and Organizational psychology most commonly include working in a human resources department of a company. With a Master’s degree, careers in Industrial and Organizational Psychology can include working in Human Resources, working in a consultation firm, or working in the government. With a Doctorate in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, one can work in Universities, private consultation, or in the government doing research. Commonly, in order to have the title of an “I/O Psychologist,” one must typically have a Ph.D. in industrial and organizational psychology. The history of Industrial and Organizational Psychology can be separated into four major areas: Beginnings, Rapid Rise, Major Expansion, and Continued Prosperity. The Beginnings era was in the late 1800’s to the early 1900’s and consisted of the pioneering of the industrial side of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. The Rapid Rise era was in the 1920’s to the 1940’s and can be defined as growth in the knowledge of the industrial side and the birth of the organizational side of industrial and organizational psychology. The Major Expansion era was in the 1950’s to the 1970’s and contained growth in the organizational field and advances in the industrial field of industrial and organizational psychology. This era also included legal landmarks concerning the concepts of industrial and organizational psychology. The era of Continued Prosperity began in the 1980’s and continues still today. The Beginnings era more specifically focused on experimenting with managerial problems. The major contributors during the Beginnings era were Hugo Munsterberg, Walter Dill Scott, Frederick Taylor, and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth. Hugo Munsterberg brought the now famous psychologist, William James, to study at Harvard in 1892. By 1907, Munsterberg’s work was centered on applications of theory and research. Munsterberg is considered to be the father of industrial psychology. In 1913, Munsterberg published the first text on industrial and organizational psychology. Munsterberg focused on the selection of employees and psychological testing. Walter Dill Scott’s main interest was in the psychology of advertisements. By 1911, Scott began to focus on applications of psychology in the workplace. The main facets of research Walter Dill Scott focused on was selection, performance evaluations, the culture of organizations, attitudes of employees, and motivation. Frederick W. Taylor was originally an engineer, but he began to research the productivity of employees. Taylor was the creator of “Scientific Management” which published many influential books in 1909 and 1911. Taylor’s research focus was on Job Design, selection, training and rewards systems. Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were wellknown for research on time and motion. The Gilbreths were the pioneers of research on human factors. Lillian Gilbreth is possibly the first person to have received a doctorate in Industrial and Organizational Psychology in 1915. During World War I, several psychologist including Yerkes began developing a testing process for group abilities of Army Alpha and Army Beta in 1917, which served as one of the first largescale applications of psychological testing to place people into jobs. During the Era of Rapid Rise in the 20’s and 30’s, organizations began to hire Industrial and Organizational psychologists to resolve issues in productivity. Also during the era of Rapid Rise, the Hawthorne Studies were born. The Hawthorne studies were created and followed through by Elton Mayo originally in order to research the physical environment and its influence on employee performance, but instead these studies gave birth to the “Hawthorne Effect” Also during the era of Rapid Rise, there were major advance in research of attitudes especially by Thurstone and Likert. Morris Viteles was an influential player in the era of Rapid Rise through his published works. During the era of Rapid Rise in the 1940’s, the study of selection, training, simulators, and human factors increased due to World War II. In 1944, Industrial and Organizational Division of the American Psychological Association was created. This division is now called the Society for Industrial and Organizational Communication or “SIOP” for short. During the 1940’s era of Rapid Rise, the industrial field of I/O psychology becomes more specialized, while the organizational field sees a growth in the interest of research. During the era of Major Expansion, there was a rise in the study of motivation theories. The motivation theories studied in this era were the NeedBase theory, Cognitive Expectancy theory, and the Behavioral theory. In this era, theories of leadership arose especially through the Ohio State Studies and Fiedler’s contingency theory. This era also included the increase the study of work attitudes. The industrial side of I/O Psychology became more advanced in research and statistics. This era also included huge legal landmarks, such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In the Era of Continued Prosperity which began in the 80’s and continues still today, more legal landmarks were reached such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, the Civil Rights Act of 1991, and Sexual Harassment Rulings. This era also includes the beginning of the use of participatory management styles. The main research of this era centers on workfamily balance, workplace violence, meta analysis, and development of organizations.
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