PSY 100 Chapter 1 Book Notes
PSY 100 Chapter 1 Book Notes PSY 100
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Grau on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100 at University of Kentucky taught by Prof. Ray Archer in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Book Notes Spring 2016 Book: Psychology: 11 Edition Chapter 1: Thinking Critically in Psychology “The first principle is that you must not fool yourself—and you are the easiest person to fool” – (Feynman, 1997). I. The Need for Psychology A. Hindsight Bias 1. Definition: Also known as the “I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon” – the tendency to believe that an outcome was foreseeable after it has happened Ex) Studying for a seemingly adequate amount of time only to receive a low grade, then telling yourself that you foresaw this grade because you hardly studied. 2. Key point as to why psychological evidence is necessary a) Psychological research may seem like common sense or intuition but may be more complex than assumed B. Overconfidence 1. Definition: The tendency of humans to think that we know more or are better equipped for something than we actually are Ex) UPenn psychologist collected predictions from experts; predictions made with 80% confidence were correct less than 40% of the time C. Perceiving Order in Random Events 1. Definition: The tendency to find patterns in our lives where there is none Ex) Seeing the Mona Lisa’s face in a piece of burned toast or a potato chip in the shape of Bugs Bunny’s head 2. Random sequences don’t tend to look random Ex) When flipping a coin, the presence of streaks of heads or tails - Flipping the coin procures random results, but the presence of a streak of heads or tails makes the flipping seem less random II. Description - The starting point of science—based on observation A. Case Studies 1. Definition: Examines behaviors of an individual or a group in an attempt to reveal behavioral patterns a) Individual studies can be misleading B. Naturalistic Observations 1. Definition: Observations made by studying those in a natural environment rather than a controlled study Ex) Nature cameras hidden to view animals in their natural habitats 2. Does not EXPLAIN, simply OBSERVES and reports findings C. Survey 1. Definition: method for collecting self-reported responses usually using random sampling 2. Wording of these surveys is essential—bias or fishing for answers through wording must be avoided to keep from skewing results 3. Random sampling helps to produce more accurate results by avoiding sampling bias. III. Correlation A. The measure of the extent that two factors relate to one another – how well do these separate variables relate to and predict one another? 1. Correlation coefficient helps to numerically define how closely two items relate to one another a) Scaled from (-1,1) b) +/- 1 does not determine closeness of correlation, but rather type of correlation: positive or negative correlation? - Positive correlation: variables increase together i. Ex) As outside temp increases, AC use also increases - Negative correlation: as one variable increases, the other decreases i. Ex) As outside temp increases, heating bill decreases c) The closer the number is to -1 or 1, the higher the correlation or the relationship between the two variables. d) Scatterplots help to visualize relationship between variables 2. Correlation coefficient also allows us to clearly see relationships between variables that would otherwise go unnoticed. a) Correlation coefficient also helps to prevent any illusionary correlations—false observation of a correlation B. Regression toward the mean: the tendency of extraordinary or unusual experiences to be followed by more average outcomes Ex) The tendency for someone’s performance to worsen after receiving praise following a great performance or to improve after receiving criticism following a terrible performance. C. Correlation does not imply causation; correlation simply points out a relationship and offers a prediction, NOT a reason 1. Experimentation is required prior to considering answering WHY there is a relationship 2. Experiments isolate cause and effects to answer, ‘Why?’ a) Experimental groups and control groups utilized for obtaining results b) Members of the study are randomly assigned to one of the two groups - Use of a placebo acts as the control group when testing therapeutic techniques c) Double-blind procedure: experimental procedure where neither the patient nor the researcher knows whether the patient is receiving the treatment or the placebo - Placebo effect: the patient believes that they have received the drug and are experiencing the therapeutic effects when in reality they have received the placebo, or an inactive compound D. Independent Variables vs. Dependent Variables 1. Independent variable: what is being manipulated in the experiment 2. Dependent variable: What is being measured in the experiment when the independent variable is being manipulated 3. Confounding variable: an unanticipated or unmeasured variable that may be affecting the dependent variable outside of the independent variable Ex) A student who exercises daily typically receives an A average on exams while a student who exercises rarely typically receives a C average on exams. In an experiment testing the effects of exercise on grades, the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is the exercise habits. The DEPENDENT variable is the grade average. IV. Research Ethics in Psychology A. Protection of Research Subjects 1. Animal experimentation helps psychologists to learn more about human behavior a) Results in advancements in treatments for humans b) Made possible because humans are animals and share myriad similarities with animals commonly tested on such as rats 2. Regulations are put in place requiring humans treatment of research subjects, human or animal 3. Human test subjects rarely experience high stress or harm during experiments a) Informed consent is required prior to experimentation b) Debriefing or explaining of experiment is required following experimentation V. Statistical Reasoning in Everyday Life A. Describing Data 1. Descriptive statistics can be used by researchers to organize the data in a meaningful manner Ex) Use of graphs to illustrate a point or to make a conclusion 2. Utilizing measures of central tendency a) Mean: the average of a set of numbers - Can be biased by outliers b) Median: the middle number of a set of numbers - Finds the middle, removing the outweighing effect of outliers c) Mode: The number which appears the most out of a number set 3. Measures of Variation a) Averages with low variability tend to be more accurate than those with high levels of variability between numbers - Skewed by extreme outliers - Variability helps to paint a larger and more complete picture b) Range can create deceptive estimate of variation due to extreme outliers c) Standard deviation helps to calculate variance in scores around a mean score 4. Significant Differences a) 3 principles to be kept in mind when analyzing data’s reliability - Randomized samples provide better insight than biased sampling - Less variability holds more accurate analysis than greater variability among a set of numbers - The larger the sample size and the more experiments conducted the better and more reliable the conclusion b) Statistical significance: a statistical statement of how likely an obtained result happens by chance, not the importance of the result.
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