World History II: Industrialization and the Age of Ideology
World History II: Industrialization and the Age of Ideology HIST 1020 -012
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Industrialization: Changes in Manufacturing 12516 I. Agricultural Revolution: Previously, most people were subsistence farmers, meaning they th grew only what they needed to live off of and rarely had any extra to sell. In the 18 century, this began to change, starting in England. People began experimenting in the ways they farmed. It became popular to adopt a more scientific approach, so the nobles got involved. A. Increase in yields: Jethro Tull invents a seeddrill (type of plow) that cuts straight lines while planting the seeds and turning over the soil more thoroughly than previous methods. People began to systematically fertilize the land and experimented by adding clay and lime to the soil. a. People learned to plant nitrogencreating crops alongside their current crops. These crops, like turnips, made the land more fertile, and could also be used to feed livestock and other purposes. i. Popularized by Turnip Townshend, an English aristocrat. B. Improvements in livestock: People started to take more control of livestock breeding, resulting in larger, healthier animals. a. Convertible husbandry: The idea to take a pasture and convert it to farmable land. Resulted in major increases in agricultural productivity. Food supplies went way up, causing a rise in birth and survival rates and a huge population increase. II. Industrial Revolution: People begin developing machines to make things that were once made by hand. As a result, people being moving from the countryside to towns with factories so that they can work. A. Changes in technology: Greatest breakthrough of the time was the steam engine, which is usually associated with James Watt because he perfected it. B. Improvements in iron industry: Iron is smelted with charcoal, which comes from wood. England is running out of trees, resulting in an energy crisis. The obvious solution was to switch to coal, but iron smelted with coal produces pig iron, which is more brittle and harder to form, making it practically useless. a. Henry Cort creates a process called Puddling and Rolling that purifies pig iron. This causes the production of iron to explode, allowing the ample production of steam engines and advancing the Industrial Revolution. C. Improvements in the textile industry: Hargreaves comes up with a humanpowered machine that made thread at 100 spindles at a time. Arkwright uses waterpower to do the same thing. Later revolutionized by steam power. a. Steam power necessitates the construction of factories. III. Why was England first? A. Resources (natural): England sits on deposits of iron ore and coal, meaning they had the resources needed to industrialize. B. Banking: Near the end of the 17 century, the Bank of England was established, creating a financial system that allowed for the loaning of money. C. Constitutional factors: England was one of the few countries at the time that didn’t have an absolutist monarchy. Instead, they had a constitutional monarchy, meaning that legislation came from Parliament, which usually reflected business interest of the people. D. Transportation: 18 century England experienced a transportation revolution, mostly based on canals as they already had an expansive natural waterway system. IV.Spread of Industrial Revolution: Started in England and spread slowly in waves, starting in mainland Europe in Belgium and arcing out from there. Industrialization II: Changes in Society 12716 I. Urbanization A. Rapid growth of cities: First and most obvious effect of the Industrial Revolution. By the mid19 century, half of the population of Britain lives in cities, which is not the norm for Europe at the time. B. Environmental consequences: There are no regulations, so the Industrial Revolution is horrible for the environment, starting with the air pollution from factory smoke stacks. The cities were, simply put, filthy. People drink alcohol more than ever. Pawn shops were commonplace. The water is also heavily polluted because factories and cities dumped sewage into the rivers. Access to water was limited, and the water they did get usually came from those highly polluted rivers, so was pretty thoroughly disgusting. a. The Great Stink of London (1858): The entire city of London began to stink to an almost unbearable degree, especially the Thames River. People would go way out of their way to cross the river at a section that didn’t completely reek. C. Housing Problems: Populations were growing, and people were moving into the cities, but there was not a housing system to accommodate them. They were often forced to live in oneroom apartments in attics and cellars. a. Entrepreneurs started throwing up shoddy housing made of cheap materials wherever they could, which created new problems. They were often cold and leaky, and because they were so hastily constructed, they generally didn’t have a sewage system. Instead, several buildings would share a single outhouse that was basically a hole in the ground that would be occasionally cleaned out and sold as fertilizer. D. Diseases were a huge problem. Typhus, typhoid fever, cholera, influenza, and other diseases associated with poverty and bad living conditions spread rapidly and often. As a result, people in the city, who were exposed to more of the pathogens, had a much lower life expectancy than people in the countryside. E. Diet: working classes lived primarily on bread, potato, butter, beer, and bacon. They rarely had mean, and when they did, it was often slightly spoiled. They didn’t have stoves, so they cooked over open fireplaces or heaters, and usually only had one pot. Most of the time, they didn’t have any vegetables at all. II. Conditions of labor A. After industrialization, pay was shifted from by the task to by the hour, and many workers would punch in 16 hours every day, with only short breaks to eat. . B. Inside the factory, no one was looking out for the worker as there was before. Instead, supervisors made sure that everyone was working efficiently, even beating people if they weren’t working hard enough. Accidents were commonplace, killing and deforming people in a time when there was no system of welfare for those that couldn’t work. C. Work was unsteady, and people would be laid off often. Women and children worked as well, and were often split up from their families as they were forced to take work wherever they could find it. They often worked in textile factories because they had smaller, more dexterous hands, and they were usually paid less than half of what men were paid. They also worked in mines because they were smaller and were used to haul carts and fill baskets. The government got involved in the mid1800s to set age limits on those allowed to work and set hour limits for each age group so that children weren’t worked to death. III. Changes in the Social Structure A. Preindustrial Europe was very hierarchical, much like the French discussed in the previous chapter. Society was dominated by the wealthy, landowning nobility, who ran the government, the army, and Europe in general. Industrialization was a major blow to the power of this aristocracy. B. Decline of the aristocracy: the new money was in the entrepreneurs, merchants, and factory owners, who ruled the Industrial Revolution. They took over a lot of government power. The aristocracy was not yet obsolete, but their power was beginning to decline, and would continue to do so for the centuries to come. C. Rise of proletariat: The proletariat are the workingclass people in the revolution era. These are the people discussed previously in notes, who were alienated and had extremely difficult lives. When living conditions got really bad, they would occasionally become a political force. D. Rise of the middle class: The middle class was not new, but in previous times they were small. Because of industrialization, they became a force. They ranged from rich th entrepreneurs to smalltime shopkeepers. The 19 century came to be called the age of the middle class, and more popularly the Victorian Period, named after Queen Victoria, who reigned from most of the century. E. Victorian Womanhood: Modeled after Queen Victoria. In successful middleclass families, the woman stayed home to rear the children and create a happy home environment. Her ability to stay at home was a status symbol that meant that her family, and her husband in particular, were successful enough that she didn’t have to work. Textiles were very expensive, so women would cover their homes in expensive furnishing, including thick drapes to block out the outside world so that their homes became sanctuaries away from the ugly misery of the industrial city. The home was the entire world of a Victorian woman. They wore a lot of layers, and were very prude (modest), with very little skin showing, usually only the hands and face, if even that. This became the great age of the corset, which was made out of whale bone and was designed to cinch in the waist. The royal family were the ideal of the time. IV.Responses to the Problems of Industrial Society A. Luddites: Early 19 century; antitechnology, protested industrialization and the rise of the machines. Known to throw protests at which they would destroy machines. B. Union: Still common today; designed to protect the rights of the proletariat. France and other European countries originally outlawed labor unions, but eventually had to back down and allow them. th C. Government reforms: Mid19 century, the government truly begins to step in and limit hours, raise the standard of drinking water, etc. Age of Ideology I: Conservatism 12916 I. Ideas of the Enlightenment A. Influence Conservatism, Liberalism, and Socialism. Phlilosophes: 18 century th Enlightenment thinkers. The ideas from this time drove revolutions. B. Enlightenment ideas: a. Natural law: Reflects impact of 17 century scientific revolution. Isaac Newton and other scientist discovered natural law, like gravity and inertia, which changed the way people viewed the world. It became so popular that people began applying it to things like the economy, saying that nature should rule things. b. Reason: The belief that the universe is rational, that everything is predictable and can come to be understood. Enlightenment came to be called the Great Age of Reasoning. c. Progress: Greatly celebrated change that they saw as progressive in nature. d. Natural Rights: In the 17 century, Locke forcefully articulated this, which helped to popularize the belief. The idea that certain rights are just part of nature. These rights were life, liberty, and property (the Founding Fathers changed this to life, liberty, and th the pursuit of happiness in the 18 century). These rights were said to apply to all men, and did not include women. II. Conservatism: Bears some resemblance to today’s definition. Political view associated mostly with the aristocracy. A. Opposition to Enlightenment and Revolution: Resisted change. Did not want sudden changes in particular. a. Edmund Burke: Major spokesperson; 1790: Reflections on the Revolutions in France (book); horrified by ideas of the revolution. Does not believe in natural rights; believed instead that rights are earned over time by individuals and families by their contributions to society. The aristocracy, therefore, had ancestors that had given enough as warriors/government officials to earn their rights. Sees the French Revolution as the height of arrogance. B. Tradition vs. Anarchy: Conservatives believed that if traditions had survived the test of time, then it must be because it was better and to come in and change it overnight was arrogant and stupid. Those that didn’t follow tradition followed anarchy. Old ways preserved order, and anything else was just chaos. Conservatives dominated the Congress of Vienna; they denied the nationalistic aspirations of the Germans and the Italians, choosing instead to redraw Europe’s borders as they had been before the French Revolution and Napoleon’s empire.
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