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World History II: Industrialization and the Age of Ideology

by: Morgan Holt

World History II: Industrialization and the Age of Ideology HIST 1020 -012

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 -012 > World History II Industrialization and the Age of Ideology
Morgan Holt
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About this Document

Covers the entire Industrial Revolution and Conservatism in the 18th century
World History II
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
world, history, II, industrialization, age, ideology, industrial, revolution, conservatism




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Industrialization: Changes in Manufacturing  1­25­16 I. Agricultural Revolution: Previously, most people were subsistence farmers, meaning they  th grew only what they needed to live off of and rarely had any extra to sell. In the 18  century,  this began to change, starting in England. People began experimenting in the ways they  farmed. It became popular to adopt a more scientific approach, so the nobles got involved. A. Increase in yields: Jethro Tull invents a seed­drill (type of plow) that cuts straight lines  while planting the seeds and turning over the soil more thoroughly than previous  methods. People began to systematically fertilize the land and experimented by adding  clay and lime to the soil.  a. People learned to plant nitrogen­creating crops alongside their current crops. These  crops, like turnips, made the land more fertile, and could also be used to feed  livestock and other purposes.  i. Popularized by Turnip Townshend, an English aristocrat. B. Improvements in livestock: People started to take more control of livestock breeding,  resulting in larger, healthier animals. a. Convertible husbandry: The idea to take a pasture and convert it to farmable land.  Resulted in major increases in agricultural productivity. Food supplies went way up,  causing a rise in birth and survival rates and a huge population increase. II. Industrial Revolution: People begin developing machines to make things that were once  made by hand. As a result, people being moving from the countryside to towns with factories so that they can work. A. Changes in technology: Greatest breakthrough of the time was the steam engine, which is usually associated with James Watt because he perfected it.  B. Improvements in iron industry: Iron is smelted with charcoal, which comes from wood.  England is running out of trees, resulting in an energy crisis. The obvious solution was to  switch to coal, but iron smelted with coal produces pig iron, which is more brittle and  harder to form, making it practically useless. a. Henry Cort creates a process called Puddling and Rolling that purifies pig iron. This  causes the production of iron to explode, allowing the ample production of steam  engines and advancing the Industrial Revolution. C. Improvements in the textile industry: Hargreaves comes up with a human­powered  machine that made thread at 100 spindles at a time. Arkwright uses water­power to do the same thing. Later revolutionized by steam power. a. Steam power necessitates the construction of factories. III. Why was England first? A. Resources (natural): England sits on deposits of iron ore and coal, meaning they had the  resources needed to industrialize.  B. Banking: Near the end of the 17  century, the Bank of England was established, creating  a financial system that allowed for the loaning of money.  C. Constitutional factors: England was one of the few countries at the time that didn’t have  an absolutist monarchy. Instead, they had a constitutional monarchy, meaning that  legislation came from Parliament, which usually reflected business interest of the people. D. Transportation: 18  century England experienced a transportation revolution, mostly  based on canals as they already had an expansive natural waterway system. IV.Spread of Industrial Revolution: Started in England and spread slowly in waves, starting in  mainland Europe in Belgium and arcing out from there. Industrialization II: Changes in Society 1­27­16 I. Urbanization A. Rapid growth of cities: First and most obvious effect of the Industrial Revolution. By the  mid­19  century, half of the population of Britain lives in cities, which is not the norm for Europe at the time. B. Environmental consequences: There are no regulations, so the Industrial Revolution is  horrible for the environment, starting with the air pollution from factory smoke stacks.  The cities were, simply put, filthy. People drink alcohol more than ever. Pawn shops were commonplace. The water is also heavily polluted because factories and cities dumped  sewage into the rivers. Access to water was limited, and the water they did get usually  came from those highly polluted rivers, so was pretty thoroughly disgusting. a. The Great Stink of London (1858): The entire city of London began to stink to an  almost unbearable degree, especially the Thames River. People would go way out of  their way to cross the river at a section that didn’t completely reek. C. Housing Problems: Populations were growing, and people were moving into the cities,  but there was not a housing system to accommodate them. They were often forced to live  in one­room apartments in attics and cellars. a. Entrepreneurs started throwing up shoddy housing made of cheap materials wherever  they could, which created new problems. They were often cold and leaky, and  because they were so hastily constructed, they generally didn’t have a sewage system. Instead, several buildings would share a single outhouse that was basically a hole in  the ground that would be occasionally cleaned out and sold as fertilizer. D. Diseases were a huge problem. Typhus, typhoid fever, cholera, influenza, and other  diseases associated with poverty and bad living conditions spread rapidly and often. As a  result, people in the city, who were exposed to more of the pathogens, had a much lower  life expectancy than people in the countryside. E. Diet: working classes lived primarily on bread, potato, butter, beer, and bacon. They  rarely had mean, and when they did, it was often slightly spoiled. They didn’t have  stoves, so they cooked over open fireplaces or heaters, and usually only had one pot.  Most of the time, they didn’t have any vegetables at all. II. Conditions of labor A. After industrialization, pay was shifted from by the task to by the hour, and many  workers would punch in 16 hours every day, with only short breaks to eat. . B. Inside the factory, no one was looking out for the worker as there was before. Instead,  supervisors made sure that everyone was working efficiently, even beating people if they  weren’t working hard enough. Accidents were commonplace, killing and deforming  people in a time when there was no system of welfare for those that couldn’t work. C. Work was unsteady, and people would be laid off often. Women and children worked as  well, and were often split up from their families as they were forced to take work  wherever they could find it. They often worked in textile factories because they had  smaller, more dexterous hands, and they were usually paid less than half of what men  were paid. They also worked in mines because they were smaller and were used to haul  carts and fill baskets. The government got involved in the mid­1800s to set age limits on  those allowed to work and set hour limits for each age group so that children weren’t  worked to death. III. Changes in the Social Structure A. Pre­industrial Europe was very hierarchical, much like the French discussed in the  previous chapter. Society was dominated by the wealthy, landowning nobility, who ran  the government, the army, and Europe in general. Industrialization was a major blow to  the power of this aristocracy. B. Decline of the aristocracy: the new money was in the entrepreneurs, merchants, and  factory owners, who ruled the Industrial Revolution. They took over a lot of government  power. The aristocracy was not yet obsolete, but their power was beginning to decline,  and would continue to do so for the centuries to come. C. Rise of proletariat: The proletariat are the working­class people in the revolution era.  These are the people discussed previously in notes, who were alienated and had  extremely difficult lives. When living conditions got really bad, they would occasionally  become a political force. D. Rise of the middle class: The middle class was not new, but in previous times they were  small. Because of industrialization, they became a force. They ranged from rich  th entrepreneurs to small­time shopkeepers. The 19  century came to be called the age of  the middle class, and more popularly the Victorian Period, named after Queen Victoria,  who reigned from most of the century. E. Victorian Womanhood: Modeled after Queen Victoria. In successful middle­class  families, the woman stayed home to rear the children and create a happy home  environment. Her ability to stay at home was a status symbol that meant that her family,  and her husband in particular, were successful enough that she didn’t have to work.  Textiles were very expensive, so women would cover their homes in expensive  furnishing, including thick drapes to block out the outside world so that their homes  became sanctuaries away from the ugly misery of the industrial city. The home was the  entire world of a Victorian woman. They wore a lot of layers, and were very prude  (modest), with very little skin showing, usually only the hands and face, if even that. This became the great age of the corset, which was made out of whale bone and was designed  to cinch in the waist. The royal family were the ideal of the time. IV.Responses to the Problems of Industrial Society A. Luddites: Early 19  century; anti­technology, protested industrialization and the rise of  the machines. Known to throw protests at which they would destroy machines. B. Union: Still common today; designed to protect the rights of the proletariat. France and  other European countries originally outlawed labor unions, but eventually had to back  down and allow them.  th C. Government reforms: Mid­19  century, the government truly begins to step in and limit  hours, raise the standard of drinking water, etc. Age of Ideology I: Conservatism 1­29­16 I. Ideas of the Enlightenment A. Influence Conservatism, Liberalism, and Socialism. Phlilosophes: 18  century th Enlightenment thinkers. The ideas from this time drove revolutions. B. Enlightenment ideas: a. Natural law: Reflects impact of 17  century scientific revolution. Isaac Newton and  other scientist discovered natural law, like gravity and inertia, which changed the way people viewed the world. It became so popular that people began applying it to things like the economy, saying that nature should rule things. b. Reason: The belief that the universe is rational, that everything is predictable and can  come to be understood. Enlightenment came to be called the Great Age of Reasoning. c. Progress: Greatly celebrated change that they saw as progressive in nature. d. Natural Rights: In the 17  century, Locke forcefully articulated this, which helped to  popularize the belief. The idea that certain rights are just part of nature. These rights  were life, liberty, and property (the Founding Fathers changed this to life, liberty, and  th the pursuit of happiness in the 18  century). These rights were said to apply to all  men, and did not include women. II. Conservatism: Bears some resemblance to today’s definition. Political view associated  mostly with the aristocracy.  A. Opposition to Enlightenment and Revolution: Resisted change. Did not want sudden  changes in particular. a. Edmund Burke: Major spokesperson; 1790: Reflections on the Revolutions in France  (book); horrified by ideas of the revolution. Does not believe in natural rights;  believed instead that rights are earned over time by individuals and families by their  contributions to society. The aristocracy, therefore, had ancestors that had given  enough as warriors/government officials to earn their rights. Sees the French  Revolution as the height of arrogance. B. Tradition vs. Anarchy: Conservatives believed that if traditions had survived the test of  time, then it must be because it was better and to come in and change it overnight was  arrogant and stupid. Those that didn’t follow tradition followed anarchy. Old ways  preserved order, and anything else was just chaos. Conservatives dominated the Congress of Vienna; they denied the nationalistic aspirations of the Germans and the Italians,  choosing instead to redraw Europe’s borders as they had been before the French  Revolution and Napoleon’s empire.


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