PS205 Week 5 Lecture Notes, Lars Skalnes
PS205 Week 5 Lecture Notes, Lars Skalnes PS205, CRN 26418
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathryn Sternberger on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS205, CRN 26418 at University of Oregon taught by Lars Skalnes in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 103 views. For similar materials see Inro. to International Relations in Political Science at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes 222015 Midterm information gt On the midterm responsible for readings week 1 through 4 nothing from WWI gt Study questions are now available on blackboard gt Wednesday s class to discuss questions from study guides Finishing the lecture on constructivism from last time9 Identity Both realism and liberalism have the same approach to guring out what states want if survival is their ultimate motive where does this notion that states want to survive come from 0 Could I assume states don t want to survive If that weren t their ultimate objective things would change 0 The notion that states want to survive is not derived in the situation states nd themselves in which is anarchy so how do we support this idea that survival is the ultimate intention of states Where does the idea come from 0 European example can t look at Europe and say states did not want to survive but we can say that a lot of states did not survive anyway 0 The answer is we just assume it because it is analytically useful to do so 0 These theories are modeled like microeconomic theory of the rm We make an assumption to make theories more tractable In constructivism we try to explain the interests of states and explain WHERE these interests come from o How do we explain why states what they want 0 Try to explain interests through a more empirical process not assumed A world without identities is a world of chaos and irremediable uncertainty and a very dangerous one indeed 0 When the Spanish arrived in America and encountered the Aztecs they had to decide who are they And who am I But even that isn t a world without identity The Aztecs thought the Spanish to be Gods The Spanish thought the Aztecs to be savages 0 Until we can decide who we are and who they are we really can t decide what we want from a particular interaction Identities tell you and others who you are and they tell you who others are 0 Skalnes example say we see each other in a restaurant after you graduate We have to decide what identities we will assume and how we will interact o This works in the case of states as well identity is not always clear 0 Germany leaders are concerned with establishing an identity of being a great power They want to be considered a great power by other states They believe only when they acquire colonies do they feel like they will be recognized as a great power P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes 0 There are many identities available to states and individuals in a certain context we will establish the basis for interaction 0 So back to the realist argument how do we explain the difference in behavior of state They would say difference in material power 0 In constructivist argument it is the distribution of identity that matters 0 Take the US we think of ourselves as a democracy that is core to which we are When we encounter other states it matters whether they think of themselves as a democracy and whether we recognize them as democracy I How many states think of themselves as democracy and how many states are recognized as democracies matters a great deal In telling you who you are identities strongly imply a particular set of interests of preferences who we are shapes what we want The identify great power implies a particular set of interests different from those of European Union member Distribution of Identities Constructivists of identities policy Identities change as a result of cooperative behavior or lack thereof and learning Whether a system is anarchic depends on how sates define their own identity and that of other states 0 Say every actor in IR was a democracy anarchy might look a lot different then it did at the end of the 1950 s The meaning of anarchy become xed and reproduced through social practices 0 What anarchy means is very much a result of the components of the system states and other actors as well 0 Realism liberalism and neoliberalism assume anarchy as a xed condition of IR 0 Does anarchy mean the same thing in the UN It doesn t look like interaction in a state of anarchy in the 30 s 0 Change is possible not easy not likely but possible Nothing is a given Constructivism and the PD PD experiments in a situation where people don t know each other and they only play once usually pay with money It turns out that people cooperate about 50 of the time A good question are the stakes high enough Typically no It s possible that if the stakes were survival it would be different 0 It turns out if you have a certain type of education you are less likely to cooperate economists are much more likely to cheat then others with the PD Whether states cooperate will depend in part on their identity 0 Selfinterest is not necessarily part of one s identity 0 In microeconomics you assume selfinterested behavior you maximize profit and maximize utility P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes States with shared identities might cooperate 0 Distribution of identity not of power that shapes cooperation The distribution of identities not the distribution of power determines whether states will cooperate or not Possible worlds Competitive security system world of realism o The world described by realism 0 Focus on relative gains Individualistic security system 0 The world described by liberalism 0 Focus on absolute gains Cooperative security system 0 Security of each is the responsibility of all 0 Could argue the league of nations was a failed attempt at this world State identity and empirical question States can have several different identities that are variable and depend on historical cultural political and social context Identity is an empirical question to be understood within a particular historical context Since states can have multiple identities and since interests follow from identities it makes no sense to think of states as having pregiven interests Constructivism and power Much more than just material Power is ALSO discursive power the power of ideas culture language discourse Ideas are powerful and shape and change identities The idea of sovereignty a contested idea 0 Emerged after a certain historical event treaty of Westphalia o It is an idea that states have exclusive control over their territory and domestic affairs principle of noninterference in domestic affairs 9 Chinese are always apposed to interfering in domestic affairs because they want to protect this principle 0 Now states will interfere in the name of human rights the meaning has changed over time o This idea is now a contested one it is no longer given because there is a new idea that there is a right to defend human rights in other states As these ideas of appropriate behavior state behavior will change Is it possible that realism and maybe liberalism could become less and less relevant over to time P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes 0 Maybe in certain contexts o Realism is very relevant in Asia because they don t have the kind of cooperative mechanism that Europe has 0 Realism could be argued to be loosing relevance in the European context 0 Obama visits India as China rises in power from realist lens it looks like it is driven by this power dilemma o Smaller nations are going to move toward the US to produce a counterweight to china but these things are not going on in Europe I So it seems none of these perspectives can be applied universally constructivism liberalism realism o Constructivism at the level of generality that we have been talking about it could cover both contexts Asia and Europe We could think of these as two separate kinds of norms o The explaining of WHY there are two different worlds gets tricky o It is a challenge to develop an overarching framework to cover all of these ideas and situations we don t yet have one Imperialism and Identity Imperialism and colonialism depended on asymmetric power but also on identity 0 The West because command of military technologies the West was much more powerful and therefore made it possible for these countries to conquer other nations 0 Ideas also had a great deal to do with imperialism We used certain justi cations The western world saw them as a civilized world we have something we can teach them We have something to offer I Identity civilized vs noncivilized 0 Mission civilisatrice I French called it a civilizing mission 0 White man s burden I A duty to civilize other communities 0 Colonization as a bene t to backward uncivilized countries I This idea shaped the nature of colonialism I The argument is that they way power was expressed was to some extent a re ection of ideas and identity I Our way of legitimizing what we were doing made colonialism possible to some extent Realism and Norms Rationalism interests and identities exists prior to institutions and norms 0 Don t add anything they just re ect power I Realism international norms do not matter they are a re ection of power 0 Agreements to be bound by such norms and so they are essentially empty They are tools of powerful states P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes Puzzles for realism 0 Why spend resources negotiation agreements that stipulate certain behaviors embody certain norms or standards of appropriateness 0 Why do states agree to be bound by these norms How is the content of norms determined 0 All realism can say about norms is that agreements of norms only affect behavior to the extent that power affects behavior 0 Useful Norms liberalism International norms affect state behavior by shifting the relative costs and benefits of various policies 0 Fear of bad consequences if norms are not followed Regulative conception of norms norms regulate and constrain preexisting behavior exogenously given agents and interests Norms exist here because they are useful There is something called a taboo against the use of nuclear weapons 0 Idea that using nuclear weapons is ethically wrong I This idea developed overtime I Developed originally through civilians I The military still sees them as useful for a very long time I The military arrives at the idea that the US will not be the rst country to use it I Then finally leaders decide that nuclear weapons are just something that we won t use it is contrary to who we are 0 Nuclear weapons was an integral part of the Cold War 0 There was no way for us to defeat with Soviets with reg weaponry we decided we would use nuclear weapons in case of soviet attack Bombing Japan The Absence of a Norm No special stigma attached to nuclear weapons Atomic weapons were as legitimate as any other weapon Decision to use took in to account 0 Earlier horrors of the war Desire to end the war quickly Desire to minimalize American casualties Truman looked at costs vs benefits From this point of view there is nothing that sets nuclear weapons apart from other kinds of weapons 0 O O O The Korean War Use of nuclear weapons discussed in 195051 but Truman ruled out using them P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes 0 A mixture of instrumental and moral concerns explain the decision consistent with both liberalism and constructivism I Not enough available need some in Europe to prevent a soviet attack I There isn t a great target I The costs outweigh bene ts we have better options I Truman had some moral qualms with nuclear weapons I Tactical concerns and ethical concerns pushed in the same direction 0 Eisenhower and Dulles both advocated using tactical nuclear weapons in Korea in 1953 I They are simply another weapon in our arsenal I Eisenhower was considering using them 0 World opinion a major constraint on their use I Increased the cost of using the weapons gt Consistent with liberalism shifts costs and bene ts gt Public disapproval of nuclear weapons increased the costs of them The Vietnam War US did not come close to using nuclear weapons in the con ict There were many targets no shortage of weapons Fear of retaliation wasn t very signi cant Use of nuclear weapons would jeopardize US moral and leadership position in the eyes of allies o Consistent with liberalism shifts costs and bene ts McNamara and Rusk neither militarily desirable nor morally acceptable 0 Consistent with both constructivism and liberalism Nixon and Kissinger considered their use but were constrained by domestic and world disapproval The 1991 Gulf War No discussion of nuclear weapons Threatening to use nuclear weapons could shatter the coalition with Iraq Using nukes would violate our conception of ourselves One highlevel of cial said we just don t do things like that Nuclear use is contrary to our identity 242015 20 minutes of WWI not on the test Why study WWI A sense that is an accidental war P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes It could have been avoided It is useful to know how it would happen to avoid accidental wars Nuclear war is thought to only be possible by accident Many explanations of WWI o The problem how could the assassination of the Austrian heir Franz Ferdinan to the throne by Serbian nationalist lead to world war 0 He travels to Serbia which he never should have done he was assassinated The car stopped and he was shot Europe and Germany in 1914 Germany France Austrohungarian empire Take a closer look at Germany becomes Germany in 1871 a hodgepodge of palyers and principalities The big player is prusia Germany wins the franco prussian war uni es and get Alsace and Loraine important How much bigger Germany gets from various wars France s strategic situation Germany was the main enemy 0 France lost Alsacelorraine in the 187071 FrancoPrussian war Source of animosity between these two countries 0 Germany bigger population and thus a bigger army Great Britain is also an enemy o No army no threat to France itself 0 Large navy a threat to the French colonial empire France s solution Needed allies to have a chance against Germany 0 Two possibilities Austra Hungay and Russia 0 Both shared a common border with Germany 0 Russia a huge population Alliance with Russia force Germany to ght a twofront war potential to split German army in two 1894 FrancoRussia alliance nally concluded o What took so long The role of Bismarck s diplomacy 0 Now they have the potential to get Germany to ght a two front war Germany s strategic problem How do you ght a twofront war Germany s solution Fight one enemy at a time Possible because 0 Slow mobilization they don t have railroads at least 3 weeks 0 Fast German mobilization extensive network of railroads German war plans from late 1890 s on P5205 Week 5 Lecture Notes o Defeat France in the west before taking on the Russians Schlieffen Plan I Incredibly risky strategy I Almost worked I Did not work I Were not able to defeat the French fast enough I Huge aw in the plan have to invade a neutral country of Belgium I Which means Great Britain comes in on the side because they have an interest in keeping Belgium neutral I They almost pulled it off Russia s strategic situation The main enemy for Russia is AustriaHungary Russia s main problem in Europe Ottoman Empire 0 Who will control the Balkans once the Ottoman Empire collapse Driving forces behind Russian policy in Balkans o Panslav movement Russia should support brothers in Serbia 0 Need for access to the Mediterranean for Russia s growing exports Outside Europe they clash with Britain over India and Afghanistan and with Japan over Manchuria and Korea