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Prologue: The Story of Psychology

by: Bailey Gabrish

Prologue: The Story of Psychology Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Prologue The Story of Psychology
Bailey Gabrish

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About this Document

These notes are from the Prologue and combine important points from both the textbook and the lecture in class.
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Psychology, Science, tulane, Introduction to Psych
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Prologue: The Story of Psychology Important Ideas in the History of Psychology  Psychology began as a theoretical study of memory and personality (first thought of by  Aristotle); it was made a science when observations were measured and experiments  occurred  Birth of Psychology – Wilhelm Wundt in 1879 Leipzig, Germany opened the first  psychology laboratory to test the atoms of the mind  Structuralism – attempt to learn the structure of the human mind through introspection  (“looking inward”) formed by Wundt and Titchener o Introspection proved unreliable due to its practice of self­response which varied  depending on person, experience, intelligence, and verbal ability  Functionalism – exploration of human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors and how they  support adaptation, survival, and flourishing; formed by James and the influences of  Darwin Psychology’s Development from the 1920s Onward  Wundt and Titchener originally defined psychology as “the science of mental life”  According to Watson and Skinner, psychology was “the scientific study of observable  behavior”  Behaviorism – belief that psychology should only study behavior without emphasis on  mental processes (can only study what can be observed); formed by Watson and Skinner  Freudian Psychology – how childhood experiences affect behavior through their  emotional responses and unconscious thought processes (including drives, wishes, and  needs); formed by Freud  Humanistic Psychology – studies how the environment can nurture (support) or inhibit  growing potential; formed by Rogers and Maslow o This form of psychology focused on the study of thriving people in society and  how to treat those who were not thriving to help them reach their full potentials  Cognitive Psychology – investigates how humans perceive, process, and remember  information (includes thinking, memory, and intelligence) o Cognitive Neuroscience – investigate how brain activity is related to cognition  Today, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes o Behavior – anything a creature acts o Mental processes – internal, personal experiences individuals infer from behavior Contemporary Psychology  Nature vs. Nurture Issue – debate over the influence genes and experience have on the  development of traits and behaviors o Do traits come from genes at birth or do they develop from one’s environment? Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Natural Selection – nature creates traits that maximize an organism’s ability to survive  and reproduce in their given environment  Evolutionary Psychology – study of how behavior and the mind has evolved from natural selection  Behavior Genetics – studies the powers and limitations of genetics and environmental  influences on behavior  Cultural Psychology – behaviors, beliefs, morals, and traditions of a group that are passed on through generations  Gender Psychology – study of how behaviors vary by gender and the underlying causes  Positive Psychology – aims to promote the strengths that make communities and  individuals thrive Psychology’s Levels of Analysis Biological Level Psychological  Genes  Learned Expectations  Natural Selection  Emotion  Responses to   Cognition Environment Behavior  Biopsychosocial Approach – combines all levels of psychology Perspective of Psychology Function/Description Neuroscience Study of how the body and brain control  emotions, memories, and sensory experiences Evolutionary Socio­Cultural Study how traits influence genetic survival Behavior Genetics Study how genes and environment promote   Relation with Others individual differences Psychodynamic  Culture, SStudy how behavior comes from unconscious   Group Infldrives and conflicts Behavioral  Societal MStudy how humans learn observable  responses Cognitive The encoding, processing, storing, and  retrieving of information Social­Cultural Study how behaviors and mental processes  differ across situations and culture Psychology’s Main Subfields  Basic Research – science with the goal to increase the scientific knowledge base  Applied Research – aims to solve practical problems Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Counseling Psychology – Aims to help those with problems in living  Clinical Psychology – studies, assesses, and treats those with disorders (also known as  Psychotherapy)  Psychiatry – provides medical treatment and therapy to those with diseases  Community Psychology – studies people’s interactions with their social environments  and how institutions or situations in society can affect the individuals or groups within it


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