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World History II: The French Revolution

by: Morgan Holt

World History II: The French Revolution HIST 1020 -012

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 -012 > World History II The French Revolution
Morgan Holt
GPA 4.0
World History II
Donna Bohanan

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About this Document

Covers the entire French Revolution and Napoleon's Empire.
World History II
Donna Bohanan
Class Notes
world, history, II, french, revolution, napoleon, empire
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Holt on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 -012 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
The French Revolution 11516 12216 I Society under the Ancient Regime a Absolutism kingqueen has absolute power b Three Estates i Clergy religious leaders mostly priests had their own laws and judicial system made up about 2 of the population ii Nobility descendants of warriors exempted from most taxes very politically powerful controlled military made up about 23 of the population iii Third Estate miscellaneous 95 of the people a Bourgeoisie Middle class entrepreneurs businessmen investors b Sansculottes manufacturing shops trade wore long trousers sansculottes meaning without breeches meaning that they didn t wear the breeches that were fashionable at the time C 85 of the total population were rural commoners They paid most of the taxes and lived in extreme poverty II Financial Crisis A The Debt brought on by wars a Colonne is the finance minister He goes to the king with financial problems because of debt and tells the king that he should not raise taxes and proposes instead a tax reform based on land b EstatesGeneral Representative assembly Colonne has to go to them to approve the new tax reform The problem is that the Estates General hasn t met in 175 years King Louis XVI and Colonne do not want to call them B Assembly of Notables 1787 a Instead they call an Assembly of Notables thinking they could convince them to pass the new reforms without many questions The Assembly asks to see the financial books so they were dismissed b King Louis fires Colonne and goes to the Parliament of Paris a group of judges and lawyers They tell him he has to go to the EstatesGeneral In an attempt to bully them into passing the reforms he fires some of the members but the others retaliate by going on strike and branches across the country follow suit 0 Strongly 6 C Resistance of the Parliament a King Louis fires Colonne and goes to the Parliament of Paris a group of judges and lawyers They tell him he has to go to the EstatesGeneral In an attempt to bully them into passing the reforms he fires some of the members but the others retaliate by going on strike and branches across the country follow suit b Strongly echoes the no taxation without representation stance of the American Revolution III The EstatesGeneral is called in 1789 Two years after Colonne originally went to Louis with his reforms A Seating and Voting Procedure a Each estate gets a meeting are to discuss the reforms and each gets one vote for a total of three votes b The third estate was almost always shut out by the privileged clergy and nobles who generally voted together The third estate was furious about this because they made up 95 of the population but had only 33 of the vote c National Assembly what the third estate begins to refer to themselves as they wanted all the delegates from all three estates to be put into the same room and vote by head so that every person s vote counts i Louis is horrified he locks them out of the chamber they were supposed to meet in B Tennis Court Oath a Pendulum Theses revolutions start small and become more radical b June 20 1789 the National assembly vows to meet wherever necessary to write France s first ever constitution C Bastille July 14th which becomes the French Independence Day Paris a King Louis moves troops into the area people begin to panic and start gathering as many weapons and ammunition as possible b Bastille fortress and prison the people declare the governor of the Bastille must turn over his weapons when he refuses they storm the Bastille execute the governor and parade his head around the city on a pike D The Great Fear countryside peasants a Rumors spread that the local nobility would turn against the peasants The peasants storm manors in retaliation they demand to see and destroy record books of debts the peasants or serfs owed the nobility IV The Work of the National Assembly A Decrees of August 4 meeting held the night of August 34 a Nobles stood and decreed peasants debtfree on their land B Declaration of the Rights of Man September 1789 a Drafted by the Marquis du Lafayette who showed Thomas Jefferson an early draft of the document It was heavily in uenced by the American Revolution b Declared that all men were equal in political rights C New Constitution 1791 a Constitutional monarchy constitution limits monarchy s power guarantees rights of citizens king shares power with an elected assembly b Legislative Assembly i Radical composition very sympathetic to the revolution most didn t agree with the constitution and wanted a republic a Girondists ProRepublic no kink Bourgiousie middle class minimalist government Laissezfaire handsoff government b J acobins true radicals prorepublic want government that supports needs of lower class sansculottes want big government minimum wage and price control ii c Danton attorney known for ability to draw and inspire crowd d Maximillian Robespierre control freak icy personality aloof follows Enlightenment tinker Rousseau Wars many radicals wanted to spread their new reforms to other countries other countries panic a Everyone in France wanted to go to war for the chance to take over the government they get their wish in spring 1792 when they go to war with Austria and Prussia when they fail it discredits the constitution National Convention 1 ii iii iv Radicals get their way they take over the government and create a republic known as the National Assembly Their composition was even more radical than the Legislative Assembly made up almost entirely of Girondists and J acobins with the J acobins coming out on top when they finally execute King Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette at the newly invented guillotine Institutes first modern draft all militaryage men were drafted to the frontlines or armament factories women were nurses created the first citizenbased patriotic army that in spring 1973 they drive the Austrians and the Prussians out of France Reign of Terror The National Assembly is temporarily run by 12 men known as the Committee of Public Safety they carried out a purge of France in 1793 by executing thousands of people accused of counterrevolutionary tendencies These people generally had little or no trial It was an extraordinary period of censorship they changed the calendar changed their culture even changed popular style as women adopted styles of Ancient Rome and men began to dress as sansculottes Children were given traditional Roman names Danton was executed In 1974 Robespierre leader of the Reign of Terror wants to begin another purge but is prevented by the National Assembly which has begun to fear for itself and has Robespierre executed d The Directory 17951799 i ii Composition More moderate than the National Convention Republic with an executive branch known as the Directory with 5 men in leadership Policies Mostly laissezfaire but would moderate in times of need iii War exports revolution through Europe moderately successful V Rise of Napoleon A Early Life and Education a Born on Corsica an island in the Mediterranean Sea that was owned by France He went to a military boarding school in France at age 9 and was commissioned into the military upon graduation He quickly rose to military power because wars offered many chances for advancement He studied history and philosophy in his spare time The Directory eventually gave him control of the French armies in Italy where he was very successful 1 Mass and mobility Napoleon was able to move a lot of troops quickly because they traveled with little supplies and lived off the land ii Napoleon understood geography and its uses in war End of the Directory and Rise of the Consulate a Napoleon is part of the coup d etat that overthrows the Directory The Consulate takes over and is patterned after the Roman republic The executive branch has 3 consuls one of whom was Napoleon 1799 In 1802 by a vote of the people Napoleon goes from being consul for a term of 10 years to being consul for life A few years later also by permission of the people of France he becomes Emperor a He believed in the revolution but by becoming emperor he was practically reviving a monarchy Napoleon s empire a Becomes larger than Charlemagne s empire from medieval times It was made up of the French empire the Allied states and the Dependent states French states were directly controlled by France dependent states had their own governments but were controlled by France Allied states were not controlled by France but still followed them In all French and Dependent states Napoleon issued reforms that changed their monarchies to republics and later put his siblings in power He also abolished serfdom and imposed the metric system and a law code Napoleon s downfall a Britain and Trafalgar Austria and Prussia enlisted the help of Britain which France was unable to defeat In 1805 he meets hem at the battle of Trafalgar against Admiral Nelson and France is defeated b Continental system Napoleon tried to destroy Britain economically by not allowing people in the French empire to buy British goods This created scarcity in the French empire and was very unpopular among the people it also engendered nationalism c Russia 1812 Napoleon decides he wants Russia too He puts together 650000 men and marches into Russia The Russians retreat before him and destroy everything behind them a strategy known as Scorched Earth Napoleon s army because they were trained to live off the land and not carry supplies quickly began to die of starvation disease and the severe Russian winter He lost half a million men to death wounds and deserters When he returns to the French empire with the intention of raising another army to try again he finds that Germany has begun to fight for their freedom d When Napoleon returns to France proper he is defeated and left on a tiny island called Elba He soon puts together 1500 men and begins the 100 days a march north through mainland Europe As they march former veterans join him until he has a decent army e Waterloo 1815 Napoleon is defeated by Britain commanded by the Duke of Wellington Napoleon is left on another island St Helena f Congress of Vienna Europe is a mess after Napoleon s empire European leaders meet and make decisions about what to do to fix it Many of their choices were very conservative restoring old dynasties and mostly returning Europe to the way it was before the French Revolution though most of the social changes remained


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