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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Ruhe on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
01252015 Group Member Needs 0 people join groups typically to satisfy needs 0 ex reman wants to keep the community safe college students wants to make friends Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs SelfActualization ful lling life purposepotential Esteem feeling good about yourself amp what others think of you LoveBelonging Safety comfort Psychological food water shelter Schutz s Theory of Interpersonal Needs Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation FIRO Theory 0 people join groups in order to satisfy one or more of these 3 needs that most people share 0 inclusion control amp affection l the intensity of the various needs is different for every person 0 a careful balance is necessary to satisfy each member s needs 0 McDonald amp Gibson study comparing face to face communication and virtual computer conference inclusion need our desire to belong be involved and accepted 0 one becomes a social member when their inclusion need is met they enjoy working with others as well as by themselves 0 unment inclusion needs results in o the undersocial member who withdraws from the group as a result of perceived underappreciation o the oversocial member who attracts attention to compensate feelings of inadequacy and seek constant companionship because they hate being alone 0 control need l whether we feel competent con dent amp free to make our own decisions 0 often expressed by an aspiring group leader 0 the satisfaction of one s control need whether great or small results on a democratic member who has no powercontrol issues in the group and is comfortable with both giving and receiving orders They often make the best leaders 0 unment control needs results in the abdicrat who wants control but does not pursue it They often become submissive due to the perceived hopelessness of gaining control They follow order and avoid responsibilities the autocrat who attempts to control the group through domination often resulting in criticism affection need our desire to be liked by others 0 when one s affection need is met they become a personal member who has no emotional problems with the other group members They feel wellliked but also secure enough to function in a less affectionate group 0 unmet affection needs results in the underpersonal member who believes no one likes them and only develops super cial relationships They appear distant and reluctant to share feelings amp opinions The overpersonal member who desperately attempts to create intimate friendships despite other members disinterest They are often too talkative amp con ding Balancing individual and group needs 0 Using the FIRO theory requires a balance between the group and individual needs 0 Be cautious when using the FIRO method because it cannot perfectly explain every behavior 0 Ex An overpersonal behavior may not re ect an unmet affection need It could instead represent enthusiastic effort Member Roles A member as assumed a role when they exhibit a unique set of skillsbehavior unique to a speci c group function 0 Ex creating enthusiasm keeping the peace organizing tasks etc Benne and Sheats Functional Group Roles o This list of group roles is common in most communication textbooks Roles are potentially temporary depending on the circumstances 0 Ex someone may take on the roles of the Harmonizer if there is a con ict 0 3 categories of roles 0 Group Task Roles l focuses on the necessary behaviors to keep the group on task Initiatorcontributor gets the group started amp provides direction by proposing ideas amp suggestions Information seeker makes the group aware of information gaps by asking for necessary facts gures and requesting explanationsclari cations Opinion seeker attempts to discover group thoughts on an issue by testing group opinions Information giver provides relevant info by researching organizing and presenting needed info Opinion giver states personal beliefsinterpretations and offers analysisarguments Elaborator helps explain ideassuggestions by providing examplessummaries or describing consequences of a decisionaction Coordinator tries to coordinate activities of members or subgroups pulls ideassuggestions together Orienter summarizes what has been said or occurred raises questions regarding the direction of a discussion in relation to the overall agendagoal Evaluatorcritic asses ideasargumentssuggestions amp diagnoses taskprocedure problems Serves as the group s critical thinker Energizer motivates members creates enthusiasm for task and a sense of urgency if needed The group quotcheedeaden Procedural technician assists prep for meetings suggests agenda items makes materialequipment arrangements Recorder keepsprovides record of group ideas suggestions decisions 0 Group Maintenance Roles l focuses on buildingmaintaining relationships to keep the group cohesive and cooperative Encouragersupporter provides praise amp encouragement often person to person Harmonizer helps resolve con icts emphasizes teamwork and importance of peacecooperation Compromiser offers suggestions to minimize differences Tension releaser alleviates tension with friendly humor breaks the ice tries to casually relax the group Gatekeeper monitors participation amp control communication encourages quiet members to speak more and talkative members to step back Observercommentator interpretsexplains nonverbal communication and feelings Paraphrases on behalf of other members Follower supports the group and accepts others ideas An attentive audience member 0 Selfcentered Roles l put individual needs ahead of group needs and goals Aggressor puts down member to get what they want Often critical of others amp takes credit for someone ese s workidea Blocker bocks progress by presenting negative amp disagreeable ideas amp attempts to derail an effective ideaproposal with delaying tactics Dominator prevents participation of others Asserts authority manipulates others interrupts others and monopolizes discussion Recognition seeker boasts personal accomplishments to become the center of attention Disrupts discussion when they are not getting enough attention Clown injects inappropriate humorcommentary to distract the group Prefers goo ng off over working Deserter withdraw from group and stops contributing acts bored amp quotabove it allquot Selfconfessor shares very personal feelingsproblems to seek emotional support rather than contributing to goal Helpseeker expresses insecurityconfusioninferiority in order to seek sympathetic responses Special interest pleader in uences group to support an unrelated interest by speaking on behalf of an outside group or personal interest Belbin s Team Roles TeamRole Theory Belbin claims groups work best when quotthere is a balance of primary roes amp members knows their roles work to their strengths amp actively manage weaknessesquot understanding the functions of Belbin s roes heps groups analyze amp improve their overall performance 0 members of successful groups can identify appropriate roles for themselves and how to work with the roles of other members 0 members should be clear about their roles but also avoid in exibility Most critical roles for effective group performance 0 Innovator fosters creativity Coordinator helps group get organize in order to make good decisions Teamworker promotes collaboration amp avoids friction Other Roles Shaper seeks patterns in group work advocates agreement challenges others 0 Resource investigator explores opportunities shares external info negotiates with outsiders responds well to challenge 0 Monitorevaluator analyzes problems amp complex issues assesmonitors progress amp contributions accurately judges o lmplementer transforms talkideas into action Develops action plans 0 Completer nisher emphasizes importance of schedules deadlines amp task completion Searches out errors 0 Specialist singleminded dedicated Provides unique expertiseskill Member Con dence Groups with con dent members are more likely to succeed They cope effectively with unexpected events problematic behavior and challenges 0 Group con dence helps groups commit to ambitious goals amp believe in their ability to succeed Communication Apprehension Communication apprehension de ned by James McCroskey as quotan individual s level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or personsquot 0 Very common 0 More than public speaking anxiety also the fear of speaking in conversations meetings or group settings 0 Various levels depend on factors such as the speaker s personality the nature of the listeners amp the occasionsetting 0 Ex getting coffee with friends v a job interview 0 Characteristics of people with highlow communication apprehension Strategies for Reducing Communication Apprehension 0 Know that you are not alone 0 Be well prepared 0 Learn communication skills 0 Relax physically 0 Think positively o cognitive reconstructuring gt assumes that communication anxiety is caused by irrational unproductive thoughts about speaking towith others that requires modifying restructuring Visualize success 0 visualization gt closely related to cognitive reconstructuring encourages positive thinking about communicating in groups Strategies for Helping Apprehensive Members 0 provide supportive amp constructive feedback 0 focus on behavior rather than the individual 0 describe the behavior rather than judging provide factual observations rather than assumptions amp opinions choose an appropriate timeplace to give supportive feedback 0 encourage amp include anxious members 0 stop talking Member Assertivenesi Assertiveness speaking up and acting in your own best interests without denying the rights and interests of others 0 May enhance the con dence and effectiveness of the group 0 can raise personal con dence amp reduce communication apprehension Balancing Passivitv amp Addression passivity gt expressed when members lack con dence amp desire to express opinions and feelings occurs when a member lacks the willskill to behave assertively o passive members may experience high levels of communication apprehension and o passive members are rarely satis ed with experience because they feel powerless aggressiveness gt members act on their selfinterests at the expense of others 0 often aggressive behaviors occur as a result unmet needs or the inability to express themselves assertively passiveaggressive gt combine both passive amp aggressive behaviors 0 lack aggressive behavior but lack respect for others 0 lack passive behavior because they speak up and appear con dent o undermine other members 0 appear cooperative but often fail to follow through with responsibilities 0 appear to agree while privately planning opposition ex appear to handle criticism well then spread gossip Assertive Skills assertiveness is an important skill to have It increases personal amp group con dence reduces social tension task satisfaction It also leads to being wellliked and gaining respect Assertive people tend to become leaders advice for improving assertiveness o devote time to preparing for meetings 0 enlist assertive colleague to ensure recognition and opportunity to speak express opinions and feelings clearly maintain direct eye contact have good posture speak expressively manipulate pitch volume amp pace OOOO
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