Class Notes SOC 2101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Welch on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2101 at George Washington University taught by Antwan Jones in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 133 views. For similar materials see Social Research Methods in Sociology at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
02062015 25 deductive theory construct 0 specify the topic 0 specify the range of phenomena your theory addresses 0 identify and specify your major concepts and variables 0 nd out what is known about the relationships among those variables 0 reason logically from those propositions to the speci c topic you are examining inductive theory construction 0 observing aspects of social life and seeking to discover patterns that may point to relatively universal principles grounded theory glaser and strauss start with data then nd patterns based on codes from which a theory is generated eld research 0 direct observation of events in progress the links between theory and research 0 deductive model research is used to test theories deductive theories can be lead to deductive models of research 0 inductive model theories are developed from analysis of data inductive models lead to inductive models the importance of theory in the quotreal world 0 white 1997 quottheory helps create questions shapes our research designs helps us anticipate outcomes helps us design intervention 0 if you want to change society you must know how it operates three purposes of research 0 exploration to satisfy the research is curiosity and desire for better understanding to test the feasibility of undertaking a more extensive study to develop the methods to be employed in any subsequent study 0 description describe situations and events through scienti c observations descriptive studies answer questions of what where when and how 0 explanation studies answer questions of why 0 the logic of nomothetic explanation 0 goal to nd a few factors that can account for many of the variations in a given phenomenon 0 example legalization of marijuana idiographic info from parents teachers clergy previous experience nomothetic political orientation 0 criteria for nomothetic criteria 0 variables must be correlated correlation empirical relationship between two variables such that changes in one are associated with changes in the other or particular attributes in one are associate with particular attributes in the other 0 the cause takes place before the effect 0 the variables are nonspurious spurious relationships a coincidental statistical correlation between 2 variables shown to be caused by some 3rCI variable spurious example 0 when ice cream sales are high in the rate of child drowning in city pools is high intervention limit the number of ice cream trucks particularly around swimming pools because the sale of ice cream causes drowning whats wrong with this logic Nomothetic casual analysis and hypothesis testing 0 Hypothesis are not required in nomothetic research byt often are generated 0 To test hypothesis Specify variables Specify measurement of variables Hypothesize correlation strength of relationship statistical signi cance 0 False criteria for nomothetic criteria 0 O 0 Complete causation one of the causes but not sole cause Exceptional cases the rule is not weakened by exceptions Majority of cases looking at particular phenomena it is ne that a minority of cases establishes a casual relationship Necessary and suf cient causes 0 O O Necessary cause represents a condition that must be present for the effect to follow Suf cient cause represents a condition that if present guarantees the effect in question most satisfying outcomes in research include both necessary and sufficient causes
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