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Biology 1104k Evolutionary Systematics Notes

by: Logan Barnes

Biology 1104k Evolutionary Systematics Notes Bio 1104k

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Bio 1104k > Biology 1104k Evolutionary Systematics Notes
Logan Barnes
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Biology 1104k Notes-- evolution/evolutionary systematics notes Will be on study guide and test
Introductory Biology II
Dr. Chapman
Class Notes
Biology 1104K, evolution, Bio, notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Logan Barnes on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1104k at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Chapman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Evolution and Systematics—Ch 14, 15, 16 Evolutionary Thought- Ch 14  Evolution by natural selection is a unifying theme for all biology o Evolution is still just a theory though  After Darwin published his theory, it started to become more accepted  WRONG PROPOSAL—Pre Darwin proposal: o Jean baptiste Lamarck proposed organisms evolved through inheritance of acquired characteristics  Organisms change in their life through use/disuse of certain pats  These changes passed to offspring  Ex: He would believe a giraffe stretching its neck a lot led to giraffes having long necks  Epigenetics—beyond the genes, occurs often while fetus is growing within the mother o Mother’s diet can affect a fetus’ predisposition o Ex: Gestational diabetes from a mother eating a lot of sweets during pregnancy  Darwin and Wallace shared experiences o Both independently theorized that evolution occurred via natural selection  4 Things NECESSARY for natural selection: #1. Variation #2. Heritable traits—traits that help offspring make more offspring #3. Selection pressure—competition, limited resources #4. Those traits lead to advantage; a winner  Individuals don’t evolve; populations evolve  Evolution by natural selection= a process of descent with dominant alleles o Evolution is the shift in the frequency of alleles in a population over a period of time  Natural selection acts on individuals in a population; but evolution acts on population o What actually changes over time is the allele frequency o Individuals don’t evolve  The variations on which natural selection works are produced by phenotype o Phenotype= The expression of the genotype o Genotype= genetic makeup of an individual organism  Natural selection selects organisms that are best adapted for a particular environment o If environments change, organisms must move, adapt or be killed off o Ex: Georgia used to be underwater, so the area that is now GA was filled with aquatic life. Now its dry land, sharks and shit don’t live here anymore How Evolution Occurs- Ch 15  All genotypes aren’t equal  Penicillin became widespread during WW2, killed most infection- causing bacteria o But it didn’t affect bacteria w/ rare allele that destroyed penicillin o Bacteria with this allele survived, reproduced. o This penicillin-resistant allele came to be by RANDOM MUTATION  Natural selection doesn’t cause genetic changes, it just selects for it  Successful phenotypes are those that have best adaptations to their present environment  Adaptations arise from the interactions of organisms w/their environments o Environment: Consisting of abiotic/biotic things o Abiotic: Sunlight, water, soil, etc… o Biotic: Living organisms, competition between organism, mutualisms, etc...  Interactions and relationships between organisms and other organisms drives evolution The Origin of Species- Ch 16  Biologists needed a clear definition of what a species is  Species—groups of interbreeding populations o Must be able to breed successfully commonly for it to be same species  Appearance can be misleading—two organisms that look similar aren’t necessarily the same species  Reproductive Isolation is maintained via premating  Premating (before sex) isolating mechanisms include o Behavorial isolation—mating rituals/dances differ between species  Ex: blue footed booby can’t mate with birds w/ different dances o Temporal isolation—species mate at different seasons/times  Ex: Animal that mates during spring cant mate during summer o Geographic isolation—Simply live in different areas  Coral can’t reproduce with organism in different part of ocean o Mechanical—it just don’t work, the act of doing the do don’t work, non-compatible sex organs  Tiger and a giraffe cant mate  Speciation—The development of a new species o often a result of competition. o Evolving, changing what a species needs to survive leads to less competition  Interbreeding population-> genetic distance between organism increases -> speciation; creation of new species  Allopatric speciation—literally means different fatherland, occurs when populations of same species get separated geologically  Sympatric speciation-- the process in which new species evolve from a single ancestral species while living in the same geographic region.  How new species form:  Species extinction—occurring at an unprecedented rate o Anthropogenic causes are one of leading causes of species extinction o Leading cause of extinction—habitat loss, global climate change o Small species, super specialized species, specific habitat  Systematics—How are species named/classified o Branch of biology concerned with reconstructing phylogeny  Phylogeny= evolutionary history o Domain—Eukaryote, Archae, Bacteria  Archae, bacteria= prokaryote o Kingdom—Animal, fungi, plant, protest o Phyla o Class o Order o Family o Genus o Species  Homologous traits—similar evolutionary (related) history o Helps with creating cladograms  Convergent evolution—nonrelated organisms evolve and develop similar traits  Divergent evolution—accumulation of differences in a population of an organism that leads to the creation of a new species after so many changes occur in a portion of the population  Cladograms/phylogenetic trees are used to see how closely related organisms are o Shows shared characteristics, traits


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