Chapter 1 Book Notes
Chapter 1 Book Notes BCH 110
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BCH 110 at University of Montana taught by Scott Samuels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Biochemist in Biology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Intro To Biochem 110 Book Notes Chapter 1 Biochemistry and the Organization of Cells 12716 11 Basic themes 0 How does Biochemistry Describe Life Process 0 All living things have biomolecules and energy 0 More structural parts of a cell are larger and more complex 0 How did Living Things Originate 0 Even structures of small biomolecules have several parts 0 Proteins and nucleic acids have complex structures 0 Both molecules and cells must have arisen from simple structures 0 Simple molecules formed by combing atoms 12 Chemical Foundations of Biochemistry 0 Organic chemistry study of compounds of carbon and hydrogen and derivatives 0 biomolecules are part of the subject matter of organic chemistry 0 Can a Chemist Make Molecules of Life in a Lab 0 Originally thought that organic molecules couldn t be made in a lab 0 Now know that it is possible but very hard 0 Functional Groups a type of classification method of organic molecules 0 Reactions of molecules based on reactions of respective functional groups 0 What Makes Biomolecules Special 0 Many functional groups contain nitrogen and organic 0 Most polar in nature I reactivity 0 ATP molecule of energy in cell I ester and anhydride with phosphate 13 The Beginnings of Biology Origin of Life 0 The Earth and Its Age 0 Only one planet that unequivocally supports life which is earth 0 Earth and eater are key to life 0 How and When did the Earth Come to be 0 Big bang theory most universally accepted theory as for the origin of the universe 0 Particularly stable nuclei are in the most abundant isotopes of biologically important elements like carbon oxygen nitrogen phosphorus and sulfur O Produced by nuclear reactions in first generation stars the original stars produced after the beginning of the Universe 0 Important difference between free oxygen that existed in the early stages of the universe 0 Early earth always had ultraviolet light from the sun because there was no ozone to block it I chemical reactions that produced simple biomolecules took place Gases have been present in the atmosphere of the early earth The earliest known rocks are 38 billion years old and are carbonates 0 Any ammonia that was present dissolved in the oceans and the left over nitrogen gas created proteins and nucleic acids 00 Intro To Biochem 110 Book Notes Biomolecules How Were Biomolecules Likely to have Formed on the Early Earth 0 0000000000 Simple compounds of the early atmosphere were found to act abiotically without life Monomers small molecules Polymers macromolecules made up of units of monomers Proteins made from many amino acids Nucleic Acids made from the monomers nucleotides Polysaccharides polymerizations of sugar monomers Proteins and nucleic acids play a key role in life processes Many amino acids and nucleotides can be distinguished easily Genetic code lies in a sequence of monomeric nucleotides I nucleic acids All building blocks have a head and a tail end I direction of monomer Catalytic Activity proteins call enzymes that increase the rates of chemical reactions compared with uncatalyzed reactions Catalysis important functions of proteins specific sequence of amino acids determines properties of all y pes of proteins DNA is the coding material for all cells Genetic Code relationship between the nucleotide sequence in nucleic acids and the amino acid sequence in proteins Molecules to Cells Which Came First The Catalysts or the Hereditary Molecules O O 0 RNA is thought to be the original coding material because it can code and preform catalysis Polypeptides are much more efficient at catalysis than polynucleotides Development of living cells is the formation of membranes that separate cells from their environment Lips are perfectly suited for cell membranes Order of amino acids is artificially synthesize proteinoids is not random because order is preferred A well established unique amino acid sequence exists for each protein produced by present day cells Self replication of peptides has been reported There are several theories to describe how life came to be on earth DNA RNA and DoubleOrigin Theory Atmospheric conditions allowed formation of molecules which play a role in life processes 14 The Biggest Biological Distinction Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes All cells contain DNA Genome total DNA of a cell Genes individual units of heredity controlling individual traits by coding for a function protein or RNA Prokaryotes earliest cells very simple with minimum apparatus necessary for life processes ex bacteria and cynobacteria Intro To Biochem 110 Book Notes 0 all prokaryotes are single celled organism but can form colonies 0 What is the Difference Between a Prokaryote and a Eukaryote 0 000 000000 00 O O Eukaryotes true nucleus more complex organisms and can be multicellular or singled celled A nucleus with a membrane is a distinguishing factor Eukaryotic cells are more complex and usually larger Organelle a part of the cell that has a distinct different function and surrounded by its own membrane within the cell Main difference is existence of organelles in the nucleus in eukaryotes Plasma membranes is the only membrane that a prokaryotic cell has In both eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms the cell membrane is a lipid bilayer Mitochondria and Ern endoplasmic reticulum are common in all eukaryotic cells Mitochondria power house of the cell where energy yielding oxidation occurs Ribosome bound to the ER contain RNA and protein the sight of protein synthesis in all liVing organisms In prokaryotes ribosomes are free oating the cytosol Cytoplasm portion of cell outside the nucleus Cytosol aqueous portion of cell that lies outside the membrane bounded organelles Chloroplasts preform photosynthesis only found in plant cells and green algae Chomatophores found in prokaryotes extension of plasma membrane and preform photosynthesis 15 Prokaryotic Cells 0 How is Prokaryotic DNA Organized without a Nucleus O OO 0 Nuclear Region DNA of cell is concentrated in this region directs workings of cell DNA is pretty simple Only a single closed circular molecules of DNA in prokaryotes Ribosomes allow a slightly grainy appearance because of how they oat within the cytosol Cell Membrane plasma membrane assemblage of lipid molecules and proteins Cell Wall made up of polysaccharide material in bacterial prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic plant cells Cell wall also serves as protection for cell 16 Eukaryotic Cells 0 Most important organelles are nucleus mitochondrion and chloroplast 0 Each separated by a double memebrane 0 Nucleus contains DNA of the cell and site of RNA synthesis 0 Chloroplasts and mitochondira have DNA that differ from DNA in nucleus 0 What are the Most important Organelles O Nucleus most important surrounded by Nuclear double membrane Intro To Biochem 110 Book Notes 00000 CO Nucleolus contains RNA synthesized on DNA template ion nucleolus for export to cytoplasm eventually going to ribosomes Chromatin aggregate of DNA and protein Chromosomes tightly coiled strands of chromatin Cristae inner membrane of the mitochondria that has many folds Matrix space within the inner membrane Endoplasmic Reticulum ER part of continuous single membrane system throughout the cell Rough ER has ribosomes studded all along it Smooth ER there are no ribosomes Grana found within plant cells and is found within the chloroplast as stacks of membranous bodies preforms photosynthesis 0 What are Some Other Important Components of Cells 0 O O Golgi apparatus series of membranous stacks involved in secretion of proteins from the cells allows sugars to be linked to other cellular components Lysosomes membraneenclosed sacs containing hydrolytic enzymes that break down target molecules from outsides sources and processes the nutrients Peroxisomes similar to lysosomes contain enzymes involved in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide also contains enzyme catalase Glyoxysomes only in plant cells contains enzymes that catalyze the glyoxylate cycle pathway that convers lipids into carbs using glyoxylic acid Cytoskeleton located in cytosol connects all organelles Some proteins in the cell membrane have a lipid matrix and can transport specific substances across membrane Transport can be in our out Vacuoles sacs in the cytoplasm surrounded by a single membrane isolate water substances that are toxic to plant 17 Five Kingdoms Three Domains 0 All organisms are divide into two kingdoms plants or animals originally 0 Then realized it is important to distinguish between prokaryotes and eukaryotes 0 How do Scientists Classify Living Organisms Today 0 00000 0 Five kingdom system allows for differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes Monera only has prokaryotic organisms Protista unicellular organisms algae is a multicellular Protista Fungi yeasts molds mushrooms Other two kingdoms are Plantae and Animalia Archaebacteria found in extreme environments extremophiles Eubacteria true bacteria 0 Is there a Simpler Basis for Classifying Organisms 0 Three domains bacteria eubacteria archaea archaebacterial and eukarya eukaryotes Intro To Biochem 110 Book Notes 0 Overarching themes of organisms but more will come to light as more research about the earth is done 18 Common Ground for All Cells 0 Did Eukaryotes Develop from Prokaryotes O Symbiosis plays major roll in most current theories 0 Mutualism benefits both parties involved 0 Parasitic symbiosis only one party benefits at the other parts expense 0 Did Symbiosis Play a Role in the Development of Eukaryotes O Endosymbosis larger host cell has many smaller organisms 0 Theory that mitochondria origin based on endosymbiosis 0 Fact that both mitochondria and chloroplasts have own DNA is a clue that supports the idea that the development of the mitochondria beginning from bacteria and evolving to what it is today 0 Genetic code in mitochondria differs from nucleus supports idea of independent origin 19 Biochemical Energetics 0 What Source of Energy in Life Processes 0 Cells require energy for many things 0 Sun is the ultimate source of energy for all life 0 Plants trap the light energy and use it to convert carbon dioxide to and water to carbs and water through reduction 0 Animals use carbs as energy sources by breaking them down through oxidation 0 Oxidation is the loss of electrons and reduction is the gain of electrons 0 How do we Measure Energy Changes in Biochemistry O Themordynamics branch of science that deals with how the energy changes in favor of a certain process 0 Process that release energy are favored O Lowering of energy allows for a more stable system 110 Energy and Change 0 What Kinds of Energy Changes Take Place in Living Cells 0 Many forms of energy 0 Formation and breakdown of biomolecules involve changes in chemical energy 0 Spontaneous any process that will actually take place with no outside intervention does not mean fast 0 Energetically favorable represents spontaneous 0 Laws of thermodynamics can predict change involving transformation of energy 111 Spontaneity in Biochemical Reactions 0 How can We Predict What Reactions Will Happen in Living Cells 0 Free Energy G indicates predicting of spontaneity 0 Value of the change in free energy gives information about the spontaneity of the process under consideration 0 When delta G is negative exergonic energy is released Intro To Biochem 110 Book Notes 0 0 Change in free energy is positive process is nonspontaneous Endergonic energy is absorbed Equilibrium no net change in either direction change in free energy 0 112 Life and Thermodynamics 0 Is Life Thermodynamically Possible 0 0 000000 Laws of thermodynamics can be stated many ways 1St laW it is impossible to convert energy from one form to another at greater tha 100 efficiency law of the conservation of energy Two laws of thermodynamics are combined to get A G A H T A S G free energy H Enthalpy Sentropy Heat of reaction at constant pressure delta H easy to measure Enthalpy y changes all the time Entropy changes are important in biochemistry Increase in entropy of a system represents an increase in the number of possible arrangements of objects In any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increase delta S is greater than 0 Entropy changes are particularly important in determining the energetics of protein folding
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