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Week 2 Notes

by: Alli Petit

Week 2 Notes GEOL 21080-002

Alli Petit

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About this Document

Will help with Quiz 2
Nicholas Bonini (P)
Class Notes
25 ?





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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alli Petit on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 21080-002 at Kent State University taught by Nicholas Bonini (P) in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see ALL ABOUT THE OCEANS in Geology at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
▯ Week 2: The Water Planet ▯ ▯ What is a Scientific Theory?  Scientific Usage – an explanation of related observations which have been tested and verified multiple times by many groups of scientists and is generally considered “true” by scientific experts  A theory: makes testable predications (revised to incorporate new findings, but its seldom replaced, example: atomic theory) ▯ Section 1.1 : Cosmic Beginnings  Origin of the universe o Hubble Space Telescope, Big Bang Model, stars, galaxies, and clusters  Origin of our solar system o Collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud, accretion to form planets  Extraterrestrial oceans o Liquid oceans on Jupiter’s moons, Europa and Calisto  Early planet Earth o Separation of dense and lighter compounds through repeated melting and solidifying -> layered system, ocean and atmosphere  Stars forming from nebular gasses in the constellation Perseus o Scientists formulate MODELS – conceptual or mathematical frameworks based on observations to test HYPOTHESES about the world around them o When a model is no longer consistent with data, the related hypothesis must be rejected o Additional data enables the development of improved models  Solar Nebula Model o Early in the development of a solar system, gravitational forces and collisions between particles of INTERSTELLER DUST result in the growth of PLANETESIMALS, which may further combine to form DWARF PLANETS and eventually PLANETS.  Chemical differentiation in the Early Solar System o temps and density differences (GRADIENTS) sorted the matter in the proplyd that would turn into our solar system o denser matter consecrated into the smaller, rocky inner planets o ice and frozen gasses coalesced into the outer gas giants  What defines a planet? o The inner planets are small and rocky, while other planets are gas giants, but all planets MUST:  Orbit the sun  Have sufficient mass to be nearly spherical  Must be in control of the space around its orbit  Planetary Composition o Inner planets have an iron core, surrounded by a silicate shell o Earth has a larger iron core and more layers than the other rocky planets o Outer gas giants have a denser core (rocky?) of unknown composition surrounded by a hydrogen gas shell  Isotopes o Atoms with the same atomic number, but differencing mass are called isotopes. This means that they have the same number of protons, but different number of neutrons  Radioactive vs. Stable Isotopes o Radioactive isotopes are unstable and break down with time o The rate at which they decay is governed by a constant HALF- LIFE o The half-life is the amount of time it takes a PARENT ISOTOPE to decay to half its initial concentration o DAUGHTER ISOTOPES are the product of the radioactive decay  Homogeneous Accretion Model o Planetesimals of similar composition collide and accrete to form the early earth o As gravity causes pressure and temperature to increase, partial melting occurs and the denser melt sinks into the interior  Summary o Scientific models provide descriptions of the natural world o They are tested and improved by the collection of new data o The Solar Nebula theory is currently the model that best fits our observations as means of explanation the development of the solar system o Various models have been proposed to explain how Earth’s oceans and atmosphere developed o The wet magma ocean hypothesis is the model that best fits our current understanding ▯ Section 1.2: Earth’s Age and Time  Geological time o Eons, eras, period, epochs o Extinction events (65 mya, 208 mya, 245 mya)  Natural time periods o The year (365.25 days) is the time required for Earth to complete one orbit around the sun o Length of the seasons o Lunar month (29.5 days) o Solar day (24 hours) ▯ Section 1.3: Earth’s Shape  Gravity - Earth is nearly spherical  Spin – Earth’s bulges at equator  Distribution of continents- slightly pear shaped  Topographic relief – minor compared to planets ▯ Section 1.4: Where on Earth are You?  Latitude and longitude o Measured in degrees, minutes, seconds o 1 degree = 60 minutes o 1 minute = 60 seconds o latitude lines (or parallels) are parallel to the equator  0 to +90 degrees Northern Hemisphere  0 to -90 degrees Southern Hemisphere  Nautical mile (nm) o 1 nm = 1’ of arc length of latitude o 1 nm = 1’ of arc length of longitude at the equator  Longitude lines (or meridians) are formed at right angles to the latitude lines o Measured from the Prime Meridian o 0 to 360 degrees East from the Prime meridian o or, 0 to +180 E and 0 to -180 W o International date line o Great circles  Longitude and it’s relation to Earth’s rotation and time o Use of clocks to record the time and the Sun it at its zenith o Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Universal Time o Earth rotates 15 degrees of longitude each hour ▯ Section 1.5: Modern Navigation  Global Positioning System (GPS) ▯ Section 1.6: Earth is a Water Planet  Earth: The Ocean Planet o About 70% of Earth’s surface is covered by ocean o About 97% of the water near Earth’s surface is found in the ocean  Hydrological cycle o Reservoirs and residence time  Large reservoirs -> long residence time  Small reservoirs -> short residence time o 5 reservoirs  atmosphere  biosphere  hydrosphere (the ocean, lakes and rivers)  cryosphere (glaciers, sea ice)  lithosphere (ground water) o Residence time: how much time does water spend in each reservoir?  Short: minutes to hours (the atmosphere)  Long: hundreds to thousands of years (the Deep Ocean)  Really Long: ten to a hundred thousand years (groundwater)  Order of residence time : shortest (atmosphere) to longest (lithosphere)  Residence time vary within each reservoir: shortest (rivers or inlets) to longest (deep ocean) o 5 ocean basins  pacific, Atlantic, Indian, southern, artic ▯ SUMMARY  expansion of universe  first stars produced the elements and galaxies  radiometric dating  latitude and longitude o grid system and clocks  Modern navigational techniques o GPS satellites  Hydrological cycle o Reservoirs and residence time  Five ocean basins ▯


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