APR 231 Chapters 3-5
APR 231 Chapters 3-5 APR 231
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chapter 3: Ethics Thursday, January 21, 2016 9:23 AM Role of Professional Organizations • PRSA: NY: 22,000, 110 US chapters, 20 professional interest areas; about 10% of PR professionals belong • Professional development: courses, seminars, webcasts • Publications: Tactics (monthly), The Strategist (Quarterly) • Annual meetings, awards (Silver, Bronze) • PRSSA: 300 campuses; 10,000 members • Education, produce “Forum” and contests • www.prsa.org, www.prssa.org Other Organizations • International Association of Business Communicators (IABC): San Francisco; 14,000, 70 nations; 90% in US • International Public Relations Association (IPRA): London, 1,000 members in 80 countries • Council for the Advancement and Support of Education (CASE): 3,200 colleges and universities • National Investors Relations Institute (NIRI) • National Black PR Society; Hispanic PR Society Employment Categories of Organizations • (Chart) Professional Codes of Conduct: PRSA • 6 Core Values P. 79 • Advocacy: responsible advocate • Honesty: highest standards of accuracy, truth • Expertise: Continued development • Independence: Objective, accountable • Loyalty: Faithful to clients, employer • Fairness: Respecting all opinions; free expression PRSA Provisions of Conduct (P. 79) • Free flow of information • Competition • Disclosure of information • Safeguarding confidences • Conflicts of interest • Enhancing the profession Codes for Specific Situations • No legal authority • Education, Information • Special areas o Financial Information: 12-‐point code NIRI o VNR: codes for video news releases (NABC) o Internet Transparency: Arthur Page Society o Corporate Practice: Firm, Companies: set codes Make a profession • Changing Practitioner Mindsets • Standardized Curriculum • Expanding Body of Knowledge • Professional Accreditation and Continuing Education Changing Practitioner Mindsets • See job as profession; Professional body of knowledge • Profession vs. Careerist, Technician mentalities Standardized Curriculum • Education: CEPR, UA accredited, “one of top programs in US” • Relatively new • Commission on PR Education • Curriculum: PR 25-‐40% credit hours: principles, case studies, research/evaluation, writing/production, planning/management, campaigns, supervised internships • PRSSA: Minimum of 5 courses for chapter Expanding Body of Knowledge • Public Relations Review and Journal of Public Relations Research • PRWeek, Ragan.com • O’Dwyer’s PR Report, • Adweek • Major Research Centers: • Bama: Plank Center for Leadership in PR • USC: Strategic PR Center • U of FL: Institute for Public Relations • Penn St: Arthur Page Center • UNC-‐Char: Center for Global PR Professional Accreditation and Continuing Education • PRSA Model • Voluntary certification program, No licensing like AMA • PRSA’s APR (Accredited in PR) in 1965; revamped in 2003 • Preview course; readiness questionnaire; portfolio • 2.5 hour exam: 4-‐step (30%), ethics/law (15%), models/theory (15%), business literacy, (10%), management (10%), crisis (10%), media relations (5%), info tech (2%), history/current issues (2%), and advanced communication skills (1%). • 20% of membership; about 4000 • Recognition of senior professionals: Arthur Page Society • IABC Model: Written/oral exam, portfolio (big part): ABC (Accredited Business Communicator) What is ethics? • Ethics refers to the standards of conduct which indicates how one should behave based upon moral duties and virtues rising from principles of right or wrong • Values: central beliefs which determine how we will behave in certain situations • Truth has small “t” • Consider: public interest, employer’s self interest, PR profession, and personal values Ethical Orientations • Kant: Absolutist: • Absolutist Ethics: Position from which there is a clear-‐cut right or wrong response for every ethical decision • Prescriptive codes: guidelines stipulate specific behaviors to follow • Proscriptive codes: guidelines stress what should not be done • Ex. Two-‐source rule; Chewing tobacco in news story • Aristotle: Existential (Relativistic/ Situational: The Golden Mean: midpoint between two extremes; moderation • Ex. PSA: all facts, boring; all sensational too extreme; moderation • John Stewart Mill: 1863 Utilitarian Principle (Relativistic/Situational): Actions are ethical only if they result in the greatest good for the most people • Ex. Dick Cheney Lie about Troops • Role Differentiation: Job is to be advocate Ethics in Individual Practice • Golden Rule: Love your neighbor as yourself • Listen to the “little voice” • Word is your bond • Yet hired professional in many gray areas Ethical Dealings with the News Media • Be Honest: Be honest with media to maintain credibility; can’t or won’t answer; no BS • Gifts to Journalists: Public relations practitioners should not undermine the trust of the media by providing junkets of doubtful news value, extravagant parties, expensive gifts, and personal favors for media representatives; varies with media • Linking Ads to Coverage: Economic pressures are forcing many publications, particularly specialty magazines, to connect paid advertising with editorial content, which is a concern to both public relations personnel and journalists. • Transparency and Disclosure: Pay freelancers to write stories/HealthSouth; Paid “shills”, Toy Guy, Kathleen Turner/Enbrel Chapter 4: Departments and Firms Tuesday, January 26, 2016 9:20 AM PR Departments: Role • Importance • IABC Study and CEO Study o Relationship building o Counselor’s role o Cost Saving & Revenue Generation o 184% ROI Corporate Structure Shapes PR Roles • Type organization, size, perception, capabilities affect roles • Large, complex: PR in policy-‐making: IBM, Coke • Called Mixed Organic/Mechanical, part of dominant coalition • Get greater support, money, outside PR help, don’t report to marketing • Small scale, low complexity: tactical function; virtually no input to management • Key Indicator: Top PR person has seat at management table • 64% (77% of Fortune 500) report directly to CEO , COO or chairman Organization of Department • Head: Manager, Director or Vice President, CCO (Chief Communications Officer) • Sections: Ex. Media Relations, Investor Relations, Consumer Affairs, Governmental Relations, Community Relations, Employee Communications, Marketing Communications • Ex. IMB: SVP, 13 VP (p. 100); ATT p. 101 • Fortune 500 average: 24 people • PRSA/Bacon Study: 13% >10; 45% 2-‐5 • PR can be dispersed: Marketing, Human Resources Organization Example (Breakdown of jobs) • SR VP • VP • Director • Manager, Coordinator • Assistants Line and Staff Functions • Line manager (Ex. VP) can delegate authority, set production goals, hire employees and directly influence the work of others • Staff people (newsletter writer) have little or no direct authority, but they indirectly influence the work through suggestions, recommendations and advice o Work your way up • PR departments have varying levels of influence • Key is access to top management Levels of Influence • Advisory: Line management has no obligation to take recommendations or even request them, o Ex. Toyota • Compulsory-‐Advisory: Line management must at least listen to public relations o Ex. Johnson & Johnson Tylenol • Concurring Authority: PR has a designed authority to review and approve all materials and communications with external audiences o for some, PR must show to legal as an example o If differences, must agree before doing it Cooperation with Other Functions • Legal • Human Resources • Advertising • Marketing • PR along with advertising and marketing is part of the promotion side; sales force Integration of Communication • Committees represent all departments • Collaboration or coalition building • Equal power for dept. • All heads report to same exec • Informal, regular contact • Written policies Trend to Outsourcing • Fortune 500: 90% using some form of outside PR counsel, 25% of budget to outside firms o Going out to PR firms to get the work done for them • Companies of all sizes: 40% of budget on outside firms • High Tech: 66% outside; Nonprofits 38% • Bring expertise and needed resources and supplement internal PR Firms • Wide range of sizes • Wide range of services • 7,000 in US • Conglomerates: part of holding co. Services • Marketing communications • Exec speech training • Research and evaluation • Crisis communication • Media analysis • Community relations • Events • Public affairs • Branding and corporate reputation • Financial relations • Others • PR Firm, not agency; counsel Global Reach • Edelman Worldwide: 4,600 employees, 63 offices, 30 nations o One of the few privately owned firms; out of chicago • Fleishman-‐Hillard: 2,600 employees, 85 offices o Headquarters out of St. Louis • Ketchum: 2,500 employees, 75 offices o Head quarters is in NYC • MSL Group and Hill+Knowlton: 60% of revenues from foreign clients; Burson-‐Marsteller 55% o Head Quarters out of NYC Rise of Conglomerates • 60% of global business conducted by firms owned by holding companies which own many types of communication companies • WPP $15.4 billion, Hill+Knowlton, Burson-‐Marstellar, Ogilvy PR Worldwide and Cohn & Wolf • Omnicrom $13.9 billion, Fleishman-‐Hillard, Ketchum, Porter Novelli, Cone Communications • Publicis $7.8 billion, MSL Group • Interpublic Group (IPG) 7 billion, Six PR including Weber-‐Shandwick, Gollin-‐Harris • (SEE p. 114 for Top 10 Information) Structure of Firm: Ketchum SF • 1,600 firms in O’Dwyer’s Directory of PR Firms; most have less than 10 o Main office is in NYC • President (In NY) • Exec VP: SF • Senior VP: associate director of ops • Several VPs; Account supervision, special proj. • Account Supervisor: Run one major account or several smaller ones • Account Exec.: direct contact; day to day w/client • Asst. Account Exec.: You, 6-‐18 months AE; 2-‐3 Years AS (Or account coordinator) • Secretarial/Clerical Staff Firm Advantages • Objectivity • Variety of Skills/Expertise • Extensive resources • Offices across country, world • Special problem-‐solving • Credibility Disadvantages • Superficial grasp of client’s unique problems • Lack of full-‐time commitment • Prolonged briefing period • Resentment of internal (company) staff • Need for strong direction by top management • Need for full info and confidence from client • Costs Fees and Charges • RFP: Request for Proposal • In PR, about 70% of budget is salaries • Hourly and Out-‐of-‐pocket • Retainer • Fixed project fee • Charge for successful placements (not widely used) Estimates • Numerous variables (salaries, building supplies, etc.) • 15-‐20% profit before taxes • Billing at 3 times hourly salary • 60K, Actually 60K+15K; 1,600 billable hours $47x3=$141; SVP $287, CEO $500 • Annual billing pressure • Selling time: 70% of budget is people’s salaries • Mark-‐ups: 15-‐20% of cost Chapter 5: Research Thursday, January 28, 2016 9:29 AM 4-‐Step Process • Research: Defining the problem, What's happening now? • Planning: Objectives, strategies, What should we do and say, and why? • Implementation: Action plan, How and when do we do and say it? • Evaluation: How did we do/how are we doing? • Iterative Process Research • Controlled, objective and systematic gathering of info for the purpose of describing and understanding • Paint picture of reality • Listening Questions to ask • What is the problem • Information needed • How results used • Specific publics researched • How data analyzed, reported • How soon needed • Cost: Spend 3%-‐5% of budget on research Using Research • Achieve credibility • Define publics • Formulate strategy • Test messages(through brochures) • Help management keep in touch • Prevent crises • Monitor competition (through surveys) • Sway public opinion • Generate publicity • Measure success Types of Research • Formal/Informal • Secondary/Primary o Secondary: research that already exists • Qualitative/Quantitative o Qualitative: you get words o Quantitative: ask and you rate something; numbers • Keys: Search Tactics and Listening Qualitative vs. Quantitative (from Prof. Gonzenbach's power point) Just examples Secondary: Existing Materials • Archival: Organizational materials: warranty, product registration • Library and Online Databases o ProQuest. o LexisNexis o Dow Jones Factiva News/Retrieval o Simmons’ Media and Markets o Gallup Poll o Burrelle’s Broadcast Database • Internet and WWW o Google Trends o US Census o National Opinion Research Center o Pew Research Center o Roper Center for Public Opinion Research o Survey Research Center o Bureau of Labor Statistics o Vanderbilt Television News Archive o Statistical Abstracts of the US Primary • What we create ourselves • Content Analysis: Systematic and objective categorization of information o Includes all the information • Interviews • Focus groups • Surveys • Copy testing: Test copy before printing/airing • Ethnographic Techniques: Anthropology, viewing Ex. Bulletin boards, Night club Content Analysis • Number articles • Amount: Column inches, minutes • Positive/Negative • Tone • Key messages • Internet • Carma International, KD Paine and Partners Interviews • Personal Interviews: Purposive (In-‐depth) vs. intercept (convenience) • Key Informants • Advisory Committees, Boards • Key Customer, Problem Groups • Detailed Questionnaire • Recording: Notes, Video, Audio • *** Do secondary first, then primary interview*** Focus Group • Group homogeneous by some variable: ex. housewives; male drivers age 24-‐45 o Idea is to engage in interaction • Discussion agenda/questions • Reaction to questionnaires, design • Copy test • *Numbers: 8-‐12 • Recruiting • Site selection, online • Moderator’s guide • *No right or wrong answer, open up • Nondirective • Nonverbal • Game/role playing Surveys • Objective: Generalize information from a sample to a population • Sample: a subgroup or subset of a population • Population: a group or class of objects, subjects or units • Power: Sample size Power of sample size • 200 +/-‐7.1% • 400 +/-‐5% • 800 +/-‐3.5% • 1000 +/-‐3.2% • 5000 +/-‐1.4% o *Margin of error is based on the sample size • Larger the sample, smaller the margin of error Sampling: Easy Way • Survey Sampling, Inc. Probability Sampling Methods 1) Simple Random Sampling: SRS 2) Systematic Sampling 3) Stratified Sampling (Quota) 4) Multistage Cluster Sampling Simple Random Sampling • Each element in the population has an equal or known chance of being selected Random Digit Dialing: RDD • Use prefix in zone • Randomly generate last numbers • Start with list and add some fixed number Why: Unlisted • When you pull random phone numbers to do random surveys Systematic: Sampling • Every nth object selected • Good when you have list of sampling units • ex. University list of students • population 20,000 • want sample of 1,000 • *Select every 1 in 20 • Random start • Make sure there is no systematic bias in sample • Kish: with large alphabetical list, approaches random selection Non-‐Probability Sampling • Volunteer • Snowball • Convenience Types of Surveys • Personal • Mail • Telephone • Internet/e-‐mail: Fast, economical; control of sample, probability issues • Omnibus/piggyback Comparison of Methods Personal Mail Phone Speed medium slow fast Cost high low low-‐med Max Length long medium short Anonymity low high moderate Influence high low medium Questionnaire construction • Carefully Consider Wording: Flame broiled, cooked in open natural gas spout • Avoid Loaded Questions: “frivolous lawsuit” • Timing and Context: Consider events outside • Avoid Political Correctness: courtesy bias: environmental • Answer Categories: exhaustive and mutually exclusive; use of scales • Questionnaire Guidelines: See P. 140 What Should Be Reported/Known About a Survey 1) Who sponsored the survey 2) Who was interviewed 3) Sampling Method 4) How many interviewed 5) When the interviews were conducted 6)How the interviews were conducted 7) Sampling Error and Confidence Interval 8) Actual Question Wording, Response Choices 9) Response Rate 10)How the data were analyzed • The adult findings are based on in-‐person interviews with 1,520 adults, 18 years and older, conducted in more than 300 scientifically selected localities across the nation during the period October 26-‐29. For results based on samples of this size, one can say with 95% confidence that the error attributable to sampling and other random effects could be three percentage points in either direction. Web Analytics • Make sense of web traffic and impact of their websites on key publics • 2 Types • Off-‐site analytics: monitor what is being said on other’s websites; use info for you • On-‐Site web analytics: monitor your website; what cause to stay (drivers) and desirable behavior (conversions) ex. donate, volunteer, purchase, favorable comment Social Media Monitoring Tools • Social media analytics: practice of gathering data from blogs and social media platforms; mine customer sentiment • Objectives: increase revenue, track/manage issues; track trends in thinking and fashion (memes); increase awareness; improve public opinion • Next, develop key performance indicators (KPIs): ex. number of followers on Twitter; retweets • Services and apps helpful: Ex. BuzzStream; Table 5.4 • Text analysis; harvest/store info • Share of voice: visibility • Buzz: comment analysis • Sentiment: +/-‐valence of conversation • Mindshare: trends in news and comment • Meme: evolving ideas Social Media Participatory Research • Participant observation • Engage in conversations, discussions • Ex. Tweeting, pinning/viewing pins on Pinterest, watch Youtube, read blogs, what’s important/good reading on Reddit, monitor Facebook
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