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APR 231 Chapters 3-5

by: Courtney Small

APR 231 Chapters 3-5 APR 231

Courtney Small

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Chapers 3,4,5 notes from this past week.
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Class Notes
Introduction, public relations
25 ?




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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chapter  3:  Ethics     Thursday,  January  21,  2016   9:23  AM   Role  of  Professional  Organizations     •   PRSA:    NY:    22,000,  110  US  chapters,  20  professional  interest  areas;  about  10%  of  PR   professionals  belong   •   Professional  development:    courses,  seminars,  webcasts   •   Publications:    Tactics  (monthly),  The  Strategist  (Quarterly)   •   Annual  meetings,  awards  (Silver,  Bronze)   •   PRSSA:    300    campuses;  10,000  members   •   Education,  produce  “Forum”  and  contests   •,       Other  Organizations     •   International  Association  of  Business  Communicators  (IABC):    San  Francisco;  14,000,  70   nations;  90%  in  US   •   International  Public  Relations  Association  (IPRA):    London,  1,000  members  in  80   countries   •   Council  for  the  Advancement  and  Support  of  Education  (CASE):    3,200  colleges  and   universities   •   National  Investors  Relations  Institute  (NIRI)   •   National  Black  PR  Society;  Hispanic  PR  Society       Employment  Categories  of  Organizations   •   (Chart)       Professional  Codes  of  Conduct:    PRSA   •   6  Core  Values  P.  79   •   Advocacy:    responsible  advocate   •   Honesty:    highest  standards  of  accuracy,  truth   •   Expertise:    Continued  development   •   Independence:    Objective,  accountable   •   Loyalty:    Faithful  to  clients,  employer   •   Fairness:    Respecting  all  opinions;  free  expression       PRSA  Provisions  of  Conduct  (P.  79)   •   Free  flow  of  information   •   Competition   •   Disclosure  of  information   •   Safeguarding  confidences   •   Conflicts  of  interest   •   Enhancing  the  profession       Codes  for  Specific  Situations   •   No  legal  authority   •   Education,  Information   •   Special  areas   o   Financial  Information:    12-­‐point  code  NIRI   o   VNR:    codes  for  video  news  releases  (NABC)   o   Internet  Transparency:    Arthur  Page  Society   o   Corporate  Practice:    Firm,  Companies:    set  codes       Make  a  profession     •   Changing  Practitioner  Mindsets   •   Standardized  Curriculum   •   Expanding  Body  of  Knowledge   •   Professional  Accreditation  and  Continuing  Education       Changing  Practitioner  Mindsets   •   See  job  as  profession;  Professional  body  of  knowledge   •   Profession  vs.  Careerist,  Technician  mentalities       Standardized  Curriculum   •   Education:    CEPR,  UA  accredited,  “one  of  top  programs  in  US”   •   Relatively  new   •   Commission  on  PR  Education   •   Curriculum:  PR  25-­‐40%  credit  hours:  principles,  case  studies,  research/evaluation,   writing/production,  planning/management,  campaigns,  supervised  internships   •   PRSSA:    Minimum  of  5  courses  for  chapter       Expanding  Body  of  Knowledge     •   Public  Relations  Review  and  Journal  of  Public  Relations  Research   •   PRWeek,   •   O’Dwyer’s  PR  Report,     •   Adweek   •   Major  Research  Centers:     •   Bama:    Plank  Center  for  Leadership  in  PR     •   USC:    Strategic  PR  Center   •   U  of  FL:    Institute  for  Public  Relations   •   Penn  St:    Arthur  Page  Center   •   UNC-­‐Char:    Center  for  Global  PR       Professional  Accreditation  and  Continuing  Education   •   PRSA  Model   •   Voluntary  certification  program,  No  licensing  like  AMA   •   PRSA’s  APR  (Accredited  in  PR)  in  1965;  revamped  in  2003   •   Preview  course;  readiness  questionnaire;  portfolio   •   2.5  hour  exam:    4-­‐step  (30%),  ethics/law  (15%),  models/theory  (15%),  business  literacy,   (10%),  management  (10%),  crisis  (10%),  media  relations  (5%),  info  tech  (2%),   history/current  issues  (2%),  and  advanced  communication  skills  (1%).   •   20%  of  membership;  about  4000   •   Recognition  of  senior  professionals:    Arthur  Page  Society   •   IABC  Model:    Written/oral  exam,  portfolio  (big  part):    ABC  (Accredited  Business   Communicator)       What  is  ethics?   •   Ethics  refers  to  the  standards  of  conduct  which  indicates  how  one  should  behave  based   upon  moral  duties  and  virtues  rising  from  principles  of  right  or  wrong   •   Values:    central  beliefs  which  determine  how  we  will  behave  in  certain  situations   •   Truth  has  small  “t”   •   Consider:    public  interest,  employer’s  self  interest,  PR  profession,  and  personal  values       Ethical  Orientations   •   Kant:  Absolutist:       •   Absolutist  Ethics:  Position  from  which  there  is  a  clear-­‐cut  right  or  wrong  response  for   every  ethical  decision   •   Prescriptive  codes:  guidelines  stipulate  specific  behaviors  to  follow   •   Proscriptive  codes:    guidelines  stress  what  should  not  be  done   •   Ex.    Two-­‐source  rule;  Chewing  tobacco  in  news  story   •   Aristotle:    Existential  (Relativistic/  Situational:    The  Golden  Mean:    midpoint  between   two  extremes;  moderation   •   Ex.    PSA:    all  facts,  boring;  all  sensational  too  extreme;  moderation   •   John  Stewart  Mill:    1863  Utilitarian  Principle  (Relativistic/Situational):    Actions  are   ethical  only  if  they  result  in  the  greatest  good  for  the  most  people   •   Ex.  Dick  Cheney  Lie  about  Troops   •   Role  Differentiation:    Job  is  to  be  advocate       Ethics  in  Individual  Practice   •   Golden  Rule:    Love  your  neighbor  as  yourself   •   Listen  to  the  “little  voice”   •   Word  is  your  bond   •   Yet  hired  professional  in  many  gray  areas       Ethical  Dealings  with  the  News  Media   •   Be  Honest:    Be  honest  with  media  to  maintain  credibility;  can’t  or  won’t  answer;  no  BS   •   Gifts  to  Journalists:    Public  relations  practitioners  should  not  undermine  the  trust  of  the   media  by  providing  junkets  of  doubtful  news  value,  extravagant  parties,  expensive  gifts,   and  personal  favors  for  media  representatives;  varies  with  media   •   Linking  Ads  to  Coverage:    Economic  pressures  are  forcing  many  publications,  particularly   specialty  magazines,  to  connect  paid  advertising  with  editorial  content,  which  is  a   concern  to  both  public  relations  personnel  and  journalists.   •   Transparency  and  Disclosure:    Pay  freelancers  to  write  stories/HealthSouth;  Paid  “shills”,   Toy  Guy,  Kathleen  Turner/Enbrel             Chapter  4:  Departments  and  Firms   Tuesday,  January  26,  2016   9:20  AM   PR  Departments:    Role   •   Importance   •   IABC  Study  and  CEO  Study   o   Relationship  building   o   Counselor’s  role   o   Cost  Saving  &  Revenue  Generation   o   184%  ROI       Corporate  Structure  Shapes  PR  Roles   •   Type  organization,  size,  perception,  capabilities  affect  roles   •   Large,  complex:    PR  in  policy-­‐making:    IBM,  Coke   •   Called  Mixed  Organic/Mechanical,  part  of  dominant  coalition   •   Get  greater  support,  money,  outside  PR  help,  don’t  report  to  marketing   •   Small  scale,  low  complexity:    tactical  function;  virtually  no  input  to  management   •   Key  Indicator:    Top  PR  person  has  seat  at  management  table   •   64%  (77%  of  Fortune  500)  report  directly  to  CEO  ,  COO  or  chairman       Organization  of  Department   •   Head:    Manager,  Director  or  Vice  President,  CCO  (Chief  Communications  Officer)   •   Sections:    Ex.  Media  Relations,  Investor  Relations,  Consumer  Affairs,  Governmental   Relations,  Community  Relations,  Employee  Communications,  Marketing   Communications   •   Ex.  IMB:    SVP,  13  VP  (p.  100);  ATT  p.  101   •   Fortune  500  average:    24  people   •   PRSA/Bacon  Study:    13%  >10;  45%  2-­‐5   •   PR  can  be  dispersed:    Marketing,  Human  Resources       Organization  Example   (Breakdown  of  jobs)   •   SR  VP   •   VP   •   Director   •   Manager,  Coordinator   •   Assistants             Line  and  Staff  Functions   •   Line  manager  (Ex.  VP)  can  delegate  authority,  set  production  goals,  hire  employees  and   directly  influence  the  work  of  others   •   Staff  people  (newsletter  writer)  have  little  or  no  direct  authority,  but  they  indirectly   influence  the  work  through  suggestions,  recommendations  and  advice   o   Work  your  way  up     •   PR  departments  have  varying  levels  of  influence   •   Key  is  access  to  top  management           Levels  of  Influence   •   Advisory:    Line  management  has  no  obligation  to  take  recommendations  or  even   request  them,     o   Ex.  Toyota   •   Compulsory-­‐Advisory:    Line  management  must  at  least  listen  to  public  relations     o   Ex.  Johnson  &  Johnson  Tylenol   •   Concurring  Authority:    PR  has  a  designed  authority  to  review  and  approve  all  materials   and  communications  with  external  audiences   o    for  some,  PR  must  show  to  legal  as  an  example   o   If  differences,  must  agree  before  doing  it       Cooperation  with  Other  Functions   •   Legal   •   Human  Resources   •   Advertising   •   Marketing   •   PR  along  with  advertising  and  marketing  is  part  of  the  promotion  side;  sales  force         Integration  of  Communication   •   Committees  represent  all  departments   •   Collaboration  or  coalition  building   •   Equal  power  for  dept.   •   All  heads  report  to  same  exec   •   Informal,  regular  contact   •   Written  policies       Trend  to  Outsourcing   •   Fortune  500:    90%  using  some  form  of  outside  PR  counsel,  25%  of  budget  to  outside   firms   o   Going  out  to  PR  firms  to  get  the  work  done  for  them     •   Companies  of  all  sizes:    40%  of  budget  on  outside  firms   •   High  Tech:    66%    outside;  Nonprofits  38%   •   Bring  expertise  and  needed  resources  and  supplement  internal       PR  Firms   •   Wide  range  of  sizes   •   Wide  range  of  services   •   7,000  in  US   •   Conglomerates:    part  of  holding  co.       Services   •   Marketing  communications   •   Exec  speech  training   •   Research  and  evaluation   •   Crisis  communication   •   Media  analysis   •   Community  relations   •   Events   •   Public  affairs   •   Branding  and  corporate  reputation   •   Financial  relations   •   Others   •   PR  Firm,  not  agency;  counsel       Global  Reach   •   Edelman  Worldwide:    4,600  employees,  63  offices,  30  nations   o   One  of  the  few  privately  owned  firms;  out  of  chicago     •   Fleishman-­‐Hillard:    2,600  employees,  85  offices   o   Headquarters  out  of  St.  Louis     •   Ketchum:    2,500  employees,  75  offices   o   Head  quarters  is  in  NYC   •   MSL  Group  and  Hill+Knowlton:    60%  of  revenues  from  foreign  clients;  Burson-­‐Marsteller   55%   o   Head  Quarters  out  of  NYC         Rise  of  Conglomerates   •   60%  of  global  business  conducted  by  firms  owned  by  holding  companies  which  own   many  types  of  communication  companies   •   WPP  $15.4  billion,  Hill+Knowlton,  Burson-­‐Marstellar,  Ogilvy  PR  Worldwide  and  Cohn  &   Wolf   •   Omnicrom  $13.9    billion,  Fleishman-­‐Hillard,  Ketchum,  Porter  Novelli,  Cone   Communications   •   Publicis    $7.8  billion,  MSL  Group   •   Interpublic  Group  (IPG)  7  billion,  Six  PR  including  Weber-­‐Shandwick,  Gollin-­‐Harris       •   (SEE  p.  114  for  Top  10  Information)       Structure  of  Firm:  Ketchum  SF   •   1,600  firms  in  O’Dwyer’s  Directory  of  PR  Firms;    most  have  less  than  10   o   Main  office  is  in  NYC   •   President  (In  NY)   •   Exec  VP:    SF   •   Senior  VP:    associate  director  of  ops   •   Several  VPs;    Account  supervision,  special  proj.   •   Account  Supervisor:    Run  one  major  account  or  several  smaller  ones   •   Account  Exec.:  direct  contact;  day  to  day  w/client   •   Asst.  Account  Exec.:    You,  6-­‐18  months  AE;  2-­‐3  Years  AS  (Or  account  coordinator)   •   Secretarial/Clerical  Staff       Firm  Advantages   •   Objectivity   •   Variety  of  Skills/Expertise   •   Extensive  resources   •   Offices  across  country,  world   •   Special  problem-­‐solving   •   Credibility       Disadvantages     •   Superficial  grasp  of  client’s  unique  problems   •   Lack  of  full-­‐time  commitment   •   Prolonged  briefing  period   •   Resentment  of  internal  (company)  staff   •   Need  for  strong  direction  by  top  management   •   Need  for  full  info  and  confidence  from  client   •   Costs       Fees  and  Charges   •   RFP:    Request  for  Proposal   •   In  PR,  about  70%  of  budget  is  salaries   •   Hourly  and  Out-­‐of-­‐pocket   •   Retainer   •   Fixed  project  fee   •   Charge  for  successful  placements  (not  widely  used)       Estimates   •   Numerous  variables  (salaries,  building  supplies,  etc.)   •   15-­‐20%  profit  before  taxes   •   Billing  at  3    times  hourly  salary   •   60K,  Actually  60K+15K;  1,600  billable  hours  $47x3=$141;  SVP  $287,  CEO  $500   •   Annual  billing  pressure   •   Selling  time:    70%  of  budget  is  people’s  salaries   •   Mark-­‐ups:    15-­‐20%  of  cost   Chapter  5:  Research   Thursday,  January  28,  2016   9:29  AM   4-­‐Step  Process   •   Research:  Defining  the  problem,  What's  happening  now?   •   Planning:  Objectives,  strategies,  What  should  we  do  and  say,  and  why?   •   Implementation:    Action  plan,  How  and  when  do  we  do  and  say  it?   •   Evaluation:  How  did  we  do/how  are  we  doing?   •   Iterative  Process           Research     •   Controlled,  objective  and  systematic  gathering  of  info  for  the  purpose  of  describing  and   understanding   •   Paint  picture  of  reality   •   Listening       Questions  to  ask     •   What  is  the  problem   •   Information  needed   •   How  results  used   •   Specific  publics  researched   •   How  data  analyzed,  reported   •   How  soon  needed   •   Cost:  Spend  3%-­‐5%  of  budget  on  research       Using  Research     •   Achieve  credibility   •   Define  publics   •   Formulate  strategy   •   Test  messages(through  brochures)   •   Help  management  keep  in  touch   •   Prevent  crises   •   Monitor  competition  (through  surveys)   •   Sway  public  opinion   •   Generate  publicity   •   Measure  success       Types  of  Research     •   Formal/Informal   •   Secondary/Primary   o   Secondary:  research  that  already  exists     •   Qualitative/Quantitative   o   Qualitative:  you  get  words     o   Quantitative:  ask  and  you  rate  something;  numbers     •   Keys:    Search  Tactics  and  Listening       Qualitative  vs.  Quantitative     (from  Prof.  Gonzenbach's  power  point)  Just  examples         Secondary:    Existing  Materials   •   Archival:    Organizational  materials:    warranty,  product  registration   •   Library  and  Online  Databases   o   ProQuest.   o   LexisNexis   o   Dow  Jones  Factiva  News/Retrieval   o   Simmons’  Media  and  Markets   o   Gallup  Poll   o   Burrelle’s  Broadcast  Database   •   Internet  and  WWW   o   Google  Trends   o   US  Census   o   National  Opinion  Research  Center   o   Pew  Research  Center   o   Roper  Center  for  Public  Opinion  Research   o   Survey  Research  Center   o   Bureau  of  Labor  Statistics   o   Vanderbilt  Television  News  Archive   o   Statistical  Abstracts  of  the  US       Primary     •   What  we  create  ourselves   •   Content  Analysis:    Systematic  and  objective  categorization  of  information   o   Includes  all  the  information     •   Interviews   •   Focus  groups   •   Surveys   •   Copy  testing:    Test  copy  before  printing/airing   •   Ethnographic  Techniques:    Anthropology,  viewing  Ex.    Bulletin  boards,  Night  club       Content  Analysis     •   Number  articles   •   Amount:    Column  inches,  minutes   •   Positive/Negative   •   Tone   •   Key  messages   •   Internet   •   Carma  International,  KD  Paine  and  Partners       Interviews   •   Personal  Interviews:    Purposive  (In-­‐depth)    vs.  intercept  (convenience)   •   Key  Informants   •   Advisory  Committees,  Boards   •   Key  Customer,  Problem  Groups   •   Detailed  Questionnaire   •   Recording:    Notes,  Video,  Audio   •   ***  Do  secondary  first,  then  primary  interview***       Focus  Group   •   Group  homogeneous  by  some  variable:       ex.  housewives;  male  drivers  age  24-­‐45   o   Idea  is  to  engage  in  interaction   •   Discussion  agenda/questions     •   Reaction  to  questionnaires,  design   •   Copy  test   •   *Numbers:    8-­‐12   •   Recruiting   •   Site  selection,  online   •   Moderator’s  guide   •   *No  right  or  wrong  answer,  open  up   •   Nondirective   •   Nonverbal   •   Game/role  playing       Surveys   •   Objective:    Generalize  information  from  a  sample  to  a  population   •   Sample:    a  subgroup  or  subset  of  a  population   •   Population:    a  group  or  class  of  objects,  subjects  or  units   •   Power:    Sample  size       Power  of  sample  size     •   200        +/-­‐7.1%   •   400        +/-­‐5%   •   800        +/-­‐3.5%   •   1000        +/-­‐3.2%   •   5000        +/-­‐1.4%       o   *Margin  of  error  is  based  on  the  sample  size     •   Larger  the  sample,  smaller  the  margin  of  error       Sampling:  Easy  Way     •   Survey  Sampling,  Inc.         Probability  Sampling  Methods   1)    Simple  Random  Sampling:    SRS   2)    Systematic  Sampling   3)    Stratified  Sampling  (Quota)   4)    Multistage  Cluster  Sampling       Simple  Random  Sampling     •   Each  element  in  the  population  has  an  equal  or  known  chance  of  being  selected       Random  Digit  Dialing:  RDD   •   Use  prefix  in  zone   •   Randomly  generate  last  numbers     •   Start  with  list  and  add  some  fixed  number     Why:    Unlisted   •   When  you  pull  random  phone  numbers  to  do  random  surveys       Systematic:  Sampling     •   Every  nth  object  selected   •   Good  when  you  have  list  of  sampling  units   •   ex.    University  list  of  students   •   population  20,000   •   want  sample  of  1,000   •   *Select  every  1  in  20   •   Random  start   •   Make  sure  there  is  no  systematic  bias  in  sample   •   Kish:    with  large  alphabetical  list,  approaches  random  selection       Non-­‐Probability  Sampling     •   Volunteer   •   Snowball   •   Convenience       Types  of  Surveys   •   Personal   •   Mail     •   Telephone   •   Internet/e-­‐mail:    Fast,  economical;  control  of  sample,  probability  issues   •   Omnibus/piggyback       Comparison  of  Methods   Personal        Mail                Phone   Speed                          medium        slow                fast   Cost                                      high                low                low-­‐med   Max  Length          long                medium        short   Anonymity                low                high                moderate   Influence                      high                low                medium       Questionnaire  construction   •   Carefully  Consider  Wording:    Flame  broiled,  cooked  in  open  natural  gas  spout   •   Avoid  Loaded  Questions:    “frivolous  lawsuit”   •   Timing  and  Context:    Consider  events  outside   •   Avoid  Political  Correctness:    courtesy  bias:    environmental   •   Answer  Categories:    exhaustive  and  mutually  exclusive;  use  of  scales   •   Questionnaire  Guidelines:    See  P.  140       What  Should  Be  Reported/Known  About  a  Survey   1)    Who  sponsored  the  survey   2)    Who  was  interviewed   3)    Sampling  Method   4)    How  many  interviewed   5)    When  the  interviews  were  conducted   6)How  the  interviews  were  conducted   7)    Sampling  Error  and  Confidence  Interval   8)    Actual  Question  Wording,  Response  Choices   9)    Response  Rate   10)How  the  data  were  analyzed       •   The  adult  findings  are  based  on  in-­‐person  interviews  with  1,520  adults,  18  years  and   older,  conducted  in  more  than  300  scientifically  selected  localities  across  the  nation   during  the  period  October  26-­‐29.    For  results  based  on  samples  of  this  size,  one  can  say   with  95%  confidence  that  the  error  attributable  to  sampling  and  other  random  effects   could  be  three  percentage  points  in  either  direction.       Web  Analytics   •   Make  sense  of  web  traffic  and  impact  of  their  websites  on  key  publics   •   2  Types   •   Off-­‐site  analytics:    monitor  what  is  being  said  on  other’s  websites;  use  info  for  you   •   On-­‐Site  web  analytics:    monitor  your  website;  what  cause  to  stay  (drivers)  and  desirable   behavior  (conversions)  ex.  donate,  volunteer,  purchase,  favorable  comment       Social  Media  Monitoring  Tools   •   Social  media  analytics:    practice  of  gathering  data  from  blogs  and  social  media   platforms;  mine  customer  sentiment   •   Objectives:    increase  revenue,  track/manage  issues;  track  trends  in  thinking  and  fashion   (memes);  increase  awareness;  improve  public  opinion   •   Next,  develop  key  performance  indicators  (KPIs):    ex.  number  of  followers  on  Twitter;   retweets   •   Services  and  apps  helpful:    Ex.  BuzzStream;  Table  5.4   •   Text  analysis;  harvest/store  info   •   Share  of  voice:    visibility   •   Buzz:    comment  analysis   •   Sentiment:    +/-­‐valence  of  conversation   •   Mindshare:    trends  in  news  and  comment   •   Meme:    evolving  ideas       Social  Media  Participatory  Research   •   Participant  observation   •   Engage  in  conversations,  discussions   •   Ex.  Tweeting,  pinning/viewing  pins  on  Pinterest,  watch  Youtube,  read  blogs,  what’s   important/good  reading  on  Reddit,  monitor  Facebook      


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