Biological & Bio-Social Theories Pt 1
Biological & Bio-Social Theories Pt 1 CJ 300
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Hendrixson on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 300 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Diana Dolliver in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see Survey of Criminology Theories in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Cl 300 Lecture Notes Friday February 6 2015 Biological and Biosocial Theories The Positive School of Criminology 0 Bio and psych paradigms o The classical school vs the positive school Classical school dominate for over 100 years 0 Early 19th century Intellectual revolution in Europe that was knows as the scienti c revolution Objecting empirical examination 0 Darwin39s 1859 Origin of Species Animals vs humans Natural selection 0 Assumption of theories Didn39t buy the rational stuff 0 Rather crime is the result of inborn abnormalities 0 Bodily constitution eye color hair color etc associated mental and psychological makeup What about environmental conditions 0 Nature vs nurture A real criminal is born bad 0 There is a difference between offenders and non offenders o The classical school of criminology focuses on the crime itself whereas the positive school focuses on the scienti c measurements of individual characteristics of criminals Arm length ear to ear etc o Cesare Lombroso 18351909 Father of the Positive School In uenced by scientists who measure and test 0 1876 o The Criminal Man Crime was all about the physical characteristics His approach to the study of crime Quanti cation Led him to conclude that offenders are different physically O The born criminal Atavistic o Cavemen evolutionary throwback Visible stigmata o Visible clues Why do more men offend than women 0 Men won t want to breed with women who have abnormalities Cl 300 Lecture Notes Types of criminals Born criminal 0 Made up 13 of criminal population 0 5 or more stigmatas for male offenders o 3 or more stigmatas for female offenders Insane criminal 0 Mental defects Criminaloid o Majority of criminal population 0 No mental or physical defects 0 Triggered by social environment What39d the point 0 To identify criminals Criminal identi cation 0 Primary method of criminal identi cation by police and correctional authorities from 18705 until 19205 Bertillon system piggybacked on Lombrosian theory with Anthropometry Turned stigmata into an equation 0 This method of ID was replaced by ngerprints Will West and William West Identical in Lombrosian theory but different ngerprints Moving on from Lombroso 0 Charles Goring39s 1913 nding discounted Lombroso39s theory of the born criminal But he found that criminals were shorter and lighter 0 William Sheldon39s 1949 theory of crime related to bodytypes ad corresponding personalitytypes Body types Endomorphic 0 Round fat not athletic Mesomorphic 0 Muscle lean rectangular Ectomorphic o Fragile bony Personality types lntrovert Extrovert Aggressive Most likely combination to be a criminal was a Mesomorphic Aggressive By the 19505 0 These early biological theories of crime were Racism Sexism Had no empirical support Served as intellectual justi cation for eugenics movement 0 But this did not stop criminologists from asking Cl 300 Lecture Notes Are there any biological traits related to crime
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