SOCIO 453: Week 1 & 2 notes
SOCIO 453: Week 1 & 2 notes SOCIO 453
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Akshita Patel on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIO 453 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Regina Benedict in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Gender and Crime in Sociology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Gender and Crime Lecture 1: Gender What is Gender? o Gender is number one predictor of criminal behavior (across cultures, age groups, ethnicities) o Males commit more crimes than females Crime: offense against society; behaviors; violating laws o Two types: Mala in se; Mala Prohibita o Mala in se: murder, robbery, rape, assault o Mala Prohibita: crimes only b/c legislation said so; ex. Speed limit o In some areas, women are catching up to men in regards to crime, ex. embezzlement o Crime and Deviance difficult to distinguish o Deviance: violating social norms (not necessarily a crime) ex. Vegetarians o Crime is a type of deviance while deviance is an umbrella In sociology, gender and sex differ o Sex: biological difference between males and females o Gender: social expectations that are associated with being male and female o Society is very categorizing If society sees a male, they expect male categories, and same for females o Social expectations of male and female Female: organized, caring, graceful, sensitive/emotional, pretty, motherly, proper, dependent Male: messy, dominant, independent, masculine, protective, stoic, physical, strong, nonemotional o News headlines: the age at which female become insecure is decreasing Lecture 2: Victimology (1/22/16) Victimology in its most simple form is the study of the victim or victims of a particular offender The thorough study and analysis of victim characteristics – May also be called “victim profiling.” o Physical traits, education, occupation, history, medical history, use of drug or alcohol o Society also want to know why a person was victimized of a crime, in addition to investigators The reason good victimology is important is that the victim constitutes roughly half of the criminal offence and is as much a part of the crime as the crime scene, weapons, and eye witnesses. This is especially true when we are presented with a live victim, as this was the last person to witness the crime, and may be able to provide the best behavioral and physical description of the offender. The victim has traditionally been neglected in police investigations. But, according to some researchers – often the best way to approach a profile is through the victimology, and is one of the most beneficial tools in classifying and solving a violent crime. Questions investigators want to ask themselves: o Why was this particular person targeted? o Was the person targeted or was the person a victim of opportunity? o What are the chances of the person becoming a victim of random? The method of approach is a term that refers to the offender’s way of getting close to his victims. There are generally 3 methods of approach, described a con, surprise, and blitz. o Con: describes an offender who deceives a victim into believing an imaginary situation exists, with the intention of luring the victim into a more favorable position for the offender, or lowering the victim’s guard to make the attack easier. o Surprise: usually characterized by an offender laying in wait for his victim, then quickly subduing that person. The offender may wait for certain conditions to be met (such as allowing a car to pass), or may be relatively un caring about the presence of eyewitnesses. o Blitz: surprise approach may be combined with “blitz” approach. This approach is best described in relation to the degree of force used and the presence of any weapons and their role in the attack. Gendered Structures of Violence (1/22/16) What does genderbased violence mean to you? o Violence based on gender: male and female; mostly women being victims What are examples? o Domestic violence, sex trafficking, Where does it occur? GBV is often divided into two interlinked categories o Interpersonal violent – refers to an act of economic, sexual, psychological or other violence perpetrated by an individual against another individual o Structural/institutional violence refers to any form of structural inequality or institutional discrimination that maintains a person in a subordinate position, whether physical or ideological, o other people within her family, household or community. GBV is manifested through a multitude of actions, including forced marriage of young girls, trafficking in persons, female genital mutilation/cutting, female infanticide, male rape, violence directed at lesbian, gay bisexual and transgender individuals, sexual violence, verbal abuse, etc.. Types of genderbased violence o Over physical abuse (battering, sexual assault, at home or in the workplace) o Psychological abuse (deprivation of liberty, forced marriage, sexual harassment) o Deprivation of resources needed for physical and psychological well being (health care, nutrition, education, means of livelihood) o Treatment of women as commodities (trafficking in women and girls for sexual exploitation) Sites of genderbased violence o Family: primary site of gender violence Prepares its members for social life, forms gender stereotypes and perceptions of division of labor between the sexes Is the arena where physical buses and/or psychological abuses occur. o Community/Society As a group sharing common social, cultural, religious or ethnic belonging, it perpetuates existing family structure an power inequalities in family and society Justified the behaviors of male abusers aimed at establishing control over women in family, and supports harmful traditional practices such a battering and corporal punishment Workplace can also be a site of violence. With in governmental service or in a business company, women are vulnerable to sexual aggregation o State Legitimizes power inequalities in family and society and perpetuates genderbased violence through enactment of discriminatory laws and polities or through the discriminatory applications of the law Associated form of violence is Violence Against Women and Girls In 1994 – Violence against Women Act – recognized gendermotivated violence as a hate crime o Hate crime: calls attention to motive Lecture 3: Domestic Violence (1/25/16) On average, a woman will leaver her significant other for 7 times before she leaves for good Some reasons for not leaving: children, authority, blackmailing Lecture 4: Blaming the Victim/Theories of Victimization (1/27/16) First theory was developed by Wolfgang in his study of murders in Philadelphia. Victim Precipitation theory argues that there are victims who actually initiated the confrontation that led to their injuries and deaths. Although this was the result of the study of only one type of crime, the idea was first raided that victims also might play a role in the Criminal Activity This theory refers to the theory of criminology where the victim of a crime is believed to have provoked or incited the criminals acts of the offender The theory is most commonly associated with crimes like homicide, rape, assault, and robbery While most theories focus on the acts and intentions of the offender, victim precipitation seeks to understand the interaction between the victim and the offender. Under this theory, the victim is viewed as an Active Participant in the crime, which happens in two ways: o First, the victim is the participant in the crime who acts first o Second, the victim encourages or provokes the offender to commit the crime Victim Precipitation theory also relates to interactions that make a victim susceptible to crime. This application of the theory is known as Victim Facilitation, and it concerns situations where a victim’s negligence or carelessness makes them more vulnerable to criminal conduct. o Ex. Studying in the library and leaving all the stuff open while you run to the restroom and when you come back, all the stuff is gone Facts about victimization: o Victimization is more likely at night (6 pm to 6 am)/ Personal larceny is more common during the day, with more serious crime occurring at night. o Crime occurs more in open public areas, although rapes and simple assaults tend to occur in homes o Crime is most frequent in central city areas o Men are twice as likely as women to be victims of robbery and assault. o Victim risk diminishes rapidly after age 25 o Unmarried/never married people are more likely to be victims that the married or widowed o The poor are more likely to be victims of crime o African Americans are victimized at the highest rates Lifestyle theory or LifestyleExposure theory is a theory of victimization that acknowledges that not everyone has the same lifestyle and that some lifestyles expose people to more risks than do other lifestyles o Ex. Prostitutes b/c of their lifestyle such as working hours, location, etc. Within the victimology literature, lifestyle exposure theory asserts that violent offending and other forms of antisocial behavior are indicator of a lifestyle that places individuals at increased risk for violent victimization o Ex. Bartender, Drug dealers, etc. The Proximity Hypothesis suggests that crime is less a function of lifestyle, but rather is based on close proximity Victims and criminals live in the same highcrime areas, characterized by poor, densely populated, highly transient neighborhoods The probability of being victimized is more a function of where one lives than one’s lifestyle Feminist Perspective: o Concerned with victimization of women o Feminism seeks that elimination of all forms of gender inequality. The goal is not to push men out but to pull women in. Feminism is a set of theories about women’s oppression and a set of strategies to change it. o According to studies about violent victimization of women, there are four strands of feminist theory The first is Marxist feminism, which hypothesizes that “women in the lower class often are situated among men who are frustrated by their own economic conditions and this frustration leads to violence against women” o According to this theory, women then become targets of violence because men find the need to take out their aggression on them. The second strain is Liberal feminism, which states that women are oppressed by men and taught to serve the needs of men in a patriarchal society, where men feel the need to maintain power and control o Under this theory, female homicide rates should decline once women are given the same rights and power as men. The third is Radical feminists who agree with liberal feminists, but argue that gender equality could lead to increased violence as men try to regain their control and power through the use of violence Finally, Socialist feminists combine Marxist and Liberal feminism viewpoints, and maintain that “both absolute and relative measures of deprivation will be important predictors of violence against women” o Under this theory, once women establish equal status to men, female homicide victimization should decrease since men with more resources should be able to appropriately handle their frustration and women will have the power and resources to leave a violent situation. Victim blaming: o occurs when the victim of a crime or any wrongful act is held entirely or partially responsible for the harm that befell them o Occurs mostly because of defense mechanism o Why do we blame? The Just World Hypothesis is based on the idea that the world is a just place, and that people ultimately get what they deserve it. Good people get good things and the wicked will be punished Lecture 5: Victim Impact: Listen and Learn (Video) (1/29/16)
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