One week of Sociology 101 notes
One week of Sociology 101 notes SOC101
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Strickland on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC101 at a university taught by Sarah Morton in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 386 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Sociology 101 Feb 2nd 6th 0 Class Cancelled Logic Fallacies Logic of social Inquiry Sociology the scienti c study of human interactions and relations 0 Everyone is an quotarmchair sociologist quotor nai39ve observer because we often informally theorize about the social world Nai39ve observers rely on common sense but sociologists must be skeptical People rely on 2 kinds of information lst and 2nd hand Logical Errors 0 When conducting sociological research there are several logical errors we need to consider 0 Here are the 3 most important ones for this class 1 Fallacies of presumption 2 Fallacies of relevance 3 Fallacies of the wrong level Fallacies of presumption 3 important types 0 1 HASTY GENERALIZATION jumping to a conclusion with too little information EXAMPLE My Former Husband was a jerk therefore all men are jerks 2 FALSE BIFURCATION takes an issue with multiple sides and says there are only 2 sides aka either or fallacy false dilemma or blackwhite fallacy EXAMPLE You can have a cheap car but wouldn39t you rather have a good one Would you rather be an athlete musician or get good grades 3 FALLACY OF FALSE CAUSE AKA spurious counterfeit cause To prove that A causes B A must come BEFORE B in time A and B must be associated and related Other factors that might cause B must be ruled out and eliminated EXAMPLES Ice cream sales are the highest when drowning deaths are the highest so ice cream causes drowning 0 39UJNH RELEVANCE FALLACIES think IRRELEVANT AUTHORITY Appeal to one using a gure who is not an expert to quotsellquot something or prove information EXAMPLE I39m not a doctor but I play one on TV Buy this drug Appeal to many quoteveryone s doing itquot EXAMPLE But mom all my friends get to stay out past midnight Appeal to select few Something is not forjut anyone EXAMPLE Only real men drink Budweiser Appeal to tradition because something is traditional and has existed for a long time it is always true EXAMPLE Because authorities a long time ago believed the earth is at it is indeed at FALLACIES OF THE WRONG LEVEL 0 Levels of analysis individual and group Levels of analysis used should not be used to nd out about a different level of analysis EXAMPLE 0 Finding out the average amount of television watched in the state of Washington does not tell us about how much TV individuals in Washington watched 1 Reductionist Fallacy using individual data to draw conclusions about groups 2 Ecological Fallacy using group data to draw conclusions about individuals Fallacies are seductive Fallacies often seem to make sense at rst but they really are nonsense It can be hard to determine what is empirically true because of these fallacies Be careful Research Methods in Sociology Step 1 The Research Question o In Sociology as well as other social science we ask questions and test them empirically Empirica What you can directly or indirectly observe using the senses Sociological questions must be empirical we cannot answer questions dealing with ethics or morality using the scienti c method EXAMPLES Research questions 1 How does race affect the life outcomes of adolescents in their transition to adu hood 2 Why are women still highly underrepresented in positions of leadership NOT Sociological research questions 1 Which religion is the right way to god 2 Is it ethical to steel even if you are in poverty Step 2 The literature Review Before you embark in your research you must be informed What has been done before What can you add replicate In this phase you go to the libraryonline and gather as much information on your topic Has my research question been answered Can I provide a better answer Concepts and Constructs Concepts Label applied to things of groups with similar characteristics or attributes EXAMPLE race and gender Constructs Things that exist analytically but are not directly observable EXAMPLE mental health observable by constructing a scale of observations Socioeconomic status SES Observable through a combination of wealth income occupation and education Variables De nition Concepts and constructs of interest to us in our research Contain attributescharacteristics or qualities EXAMPLE SexVariable FemaleMae attributes Variables must be de ned before we construct our hypothesis Operationalization Transforming the variables into things that can be observed and measured breaking variables into attributes EXAMPLE Transforming gender into manwoman Kinds of variables 0 Variables can in uence or be in uenced by another thing Variables that in uence are causes and variables that are in uenced by something are effects Independent variable A variable that in uences other variables cause Dependent Variabe A variable that is in uenced by an independent variable effect The dependent variable Depends on the independent variable lndependent variablein uence Directionality of Variables Variables can have a positive or negative relationship o If variables both vary in the same direction they have a positive relationship If variables vary in the opposite direction they have a negative relationship Example interpretation 0 Independent variable College major Dependent Variable number or allnighters per week Operationalization College major Split into art sociology nursing and engineering Allnighters Split into numbers from 24 Relationship Certain majors in college are more inclined to pulling all nighter39s than others Step 3 Formulate Hypothesis Hypothesis a prediction of the relationship between variables Formed after a thorough examination of literature not simply an educated guess Will be tested in the proposed study EXAMPLES 1 Education affects income 2 Gender affects political party af liation Step 4 Research design and methods Qualitative vs Quantitative Quantitative Gathering data that can easily be expressed with numbers and analyzing it using various statistical methods Foows the research model proposed by the natural sciences and focuses on the objective nature of behavior Qualitative focuses on the meaning quality of behavior Can Coect quanti able data but focuses mainly on descriptive accounts of the human experience Types of methods Survey Survey a series of questions asked about a number of people Quantitative method Type interview and selfadministered Good for getting demographic information and other information from large amounts of people Types of questions Close ended questions with speci c answer categories Ho EX Are youMale Female Other 1 Open ended questions where respondents can write out their answers EX What do you like most about this class Types of methods Observation Field Research Used to directly observe social behavior outside of the lab Usually qualitative Complete participant going quotundercoverquot Participant observer admits to being researcher to the people being studied Complete observer Viewing things form a distance Good for studying smaller groups indepth Hawthorne effect When the researchers participation in eld research in uences the subjects and ndings Types of Methods Unobtrusive Nonreactive Research Studying human behavior without having an impact on your subjects This method is good for getting rid of the Hawthorne effect Artifacts Studying artifacts to look at culture Use of existing statistics using secondary nonsurvey data from organizations such as the US government that has already been collected Content Analysis Subjecting a text to careful scrutiny to see what it reveals eg Diaries literature movies magazines newspapers and music Triangulation A research strategy that helps us quotzero inquot on social phenomena 0 Each research method has weaknesses and strengths and using more than one research method can make for a better analysis by quotbalancing outquot these weaknesses AKA mixedmethods approach EX using a survey of cose ended questions and then taking part of the sample and doing qualitative interviews Sampling Sample portion of the population that you will study to make inferences about the larger population It is too costly to sample everyone in a population so sampling is used The more diverse a population the larger the sample needs to be When you use quantitative methods such as surveys random sampling is typically usedevery member in the population has the same probability of being selected Asking andor paying for volunteers is convenience sampling which is not scienti c Basic Statistics Mean quotAveragequot of cases found by adding up all of the cases and dividing by the number of cases 0 Median The number in the middle of the list found by putting the numbers in order and picking out the one in the middeor if theres an even amount of numbers takin the average of the two numbers in the middle 0 Mode Number that occurs the most in the data set Correlation VS Causation Correlation does not equal causation Something can be highly correlated but there could be another factors that is a better explanation
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