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AMH 2020 Week 5

by: Jocelyn

AMH 2020 Week 5 AMH 2020


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About this Document

Labor Strikes, Labor Organizations, and Immigration
American History 1877-Present
Dr. Noll
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in American History 1877-Present

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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jocelyn on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AMH 2020 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Noll in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see American History 1877-Present in History at University of Florida.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Monday, February 1, 2016 AMH 2020 Week 5 Labor Strikes 1. Great Strike of 1877: Railroads 2. Haymarket 1886: Chicago bomb thrown, policemen and anarchists shot down-"all workers are anarchists” 3. Homestead 1892: the strike about power and control of the steel mill. Carnegie wins the strike and workers have no power and control. • Hush O’Donnell is a second generation Irish immigrant that represents ambivalence about activism. He owns a home in homestead which is unusual for workers because he saved up money. He votes Republican, the party of the capitalist class. (he wants to be like them) He represents ambivalence for capitalism, individualism, and communitarianism. • Piano is the middle class representation respectability which he has in his house. • He is also working in conjunction with the union and he goes out on the strike with them. Upon this, he loses his hopes of being considered middle class. He cares about workers as a class, but he care about moving on up. He does not succeed in moving forward. As a communitarian, he loses his house and job. 4. Pullman 1894: One year after the Panic of 1893. It was the largest economic depression in American history before the Great Depression. • Pullman is a factory outside Chicago in which workers made railroads cars that people can travel smoothly and safely. He builds a factory to design these cars and builds an entire city around which to manufacture these cars, Pullman. • He’s going to cut wages so workers are stuck. He’s not going to cut rent prices for workers at the same time. If they can’t pay the rent, they are thrown out of their house. • The summer of 1894, they go out on strike. Lead by a man who is heading a union called ARU called Eugene Debs, a homegrown socialist. We have workers all over the country. It shuts down the transportation infrastructure. 1 Monday, February 1, 2016 • It’s a nationwide boycott/job shut down of every railroad that uses Pullman cars. What’s Pullman going to do? He's going to call the governor of Illinois who has pardoned the last four of the Haymarket anarchists. He’s obviously no help. Pullman going to call the federal government instead. 1. TROOPS. They are going to send in troops who believe that workers are interfering with national service. They are going to break the strike with violence. 2. LEGAL. He calls the attorney general of the United States who happens to be a former railroad attorney. He’s going to listen to the demands of people like Pullman. Debs was sent to jail and then ran for president when he came out of jail. • They got the government to pass Anti-trust legislation “in restraint of trade” called the Sherman Anti Trust Act of 1890 first used in 1894. It is passed to help workers to curve the practice of business. Results - Every time they strike, they lose. - How can workers respond? Business has been consolidated and gotten bigger. Workers can similarly organize. - AA Labor Organizations - Knights of Labor: by the late 1870s it grows to a large national organization led by Terence Powderly. Powderly is a charismatic speaker. Workers can operate as a class and can succeed in America by participating in politics. - Powderly sees workers as producers. Everybody who is a worker who produces stuff is eligible to join the union. - Men, women, blacks, whites, immigrants, natives, skilled and unskilled - Has to show that by joining the union, they will actually achieve tangible results. You’re willing to join it because they’re winning. 500,000 people are members by 1886, but that number continuously drops. - The goal was to improve workers as a class 2 Monday, February 1, 2016 - Haymarket also happens in 1886 and people think that all workers are anarchists. Those things together allow the Knights of Labor to fall. Ideas of the Knights of Labor are utopian. But workers are prejudiced. - American Federation of Labor led by Samuel Gompers. He has seen what happened in New York in the Great Strike of 1877. - The best way to work out for yourself to consolidate with people that work just like you. It’s a series of craft unions made up of skilled workers. - They care about bread and butter unionism. - The goal was to improve workers individually. They yearned to accomplish this by increasing wages, improving hours, and things that could improve “your” life rather than workers as a class. This is all about the relationship between the workers and their boss. - By 1890, there are 450,000 workers in AFL. They re fighting a battle because work is changing through deskilling. A new class of workers, immigrants, is going to fill the skilled and semi skilled jobs. - 14 million people immigrate to the United between 1880 and 1900. - Another 14 million people immigrate between 1900 and 1920. - They come for political freedom, economic opportunity, and religious freedom. Before 1880, 80% of immigrants that come to American are from Western and Northern Europe. - Americans don't necessarily want them here, but we need them to do jobs. - Immigrants came to America because they thought the streets were paved with gold, but the streets were not paved at all and they had to pave them. 3 Wednesday, February 3, 2016 Immigration - Changing from history to sociology - Becoming Americans - Switching Gears Completely: Indians & the Unintended Consequence of Return - From 1880-1920 many people come over because • Pull (opportunity) • Push (bad conditions at home) - Americans are profoundly ambivalent about their arrival We need them because they are willing to do the work Americans are not willing to • do • We don't want them because they are strange, different, smelly, and speak other languages • Americans can complain about lots of things, but they can’t say that immigrants are lazy because they are willing to work in the worst conditions - Immigrants come here by steamboat • By the 1890s, many people that couldn't come before now can because the price is cheaper • There is also knowledge of what is going on in America • Vast majority of European immigrants go to New York, specifically Ellis Island - Ellis Island is a gatekeeping place or immigration station that people need to check in before having access to America • Steamboats have awful conditions with barely no room or respect for personal space similar to Grog House 4 Wednesday, February 3, 2016 Ellis Island is built in 1893 • Before this, immigrants go into NYC without regulation • Ellis Island is as much about keeping people out as keeping people in • They are trying to keep out old people and sick people who can spread diseases. The eye disease that they checked for was trachoma by whipping up eyelids. They also don't want criminals, disabled people, lazy people, anarchists, communists, radicals, and stupid people (feeble minded). • The tests administered toward the “feeble minded” are in English, so obviously they wouldn't perform well • They also administer IQ tests which are supposed to measure your general intelligence; however, they actually test cultural phenomenon that immigrants wouldn't know about - Only about 10% of those who are screened are not allowed to come - They get sent back, and the steamship company has to pay for it - People are screened in Europe before they even get on the boat Why do immigrants already know where they want to go? - They already know someone here! - This is known as chain migration because it’s about kin networks, community networks, and church networks because you feel comfortable. - Birds of passage tells us that immigration across the atlantic is not simply always a one way phenomenon. They are people that travel back and forth across the Atlantic. A lot of people work hard here and then go back home OR help relatives come back with them. - About 1/3 people that come over, also go back What do immigrants have to do once they are here? - Most of them are going to end up in urban settings that are known as urban ghettos - The goal of immigrants is to become Americans through assimilation and by doing so they are immediately becoming an American as soon as they get off the ship 5 Wednesday, February 3, 2016 - The correct term is actually acculturation, Americans will come into America on their own terms and integrate on their own time. Acculturation assumes that they want to become Americans but they want to maintain the relationship with what they had before. 2 groups of people are going to help in this process 1. “Functional level: I can do something for these immigrants and they can do something for me.” Politicians of the Democratic Party are going to help get people jobs, and in turn, the immigrants are going to vote for them. This type of relationship is known as machine politics. - Big example of machine politics is Boss Tweed in Tammany Hall - Political parties can also give immigrants money or especially turkeys on Thanksgiving to earn their vote - Political parties function as a safety net during this process in exchange for votes - For this to work, voting actually has to happen and can’t be secret. No secret ballots so the democratic politicians can make sure that immigrants vote for who they tell them to. 2. Women social reformers: People like Jane Addams who work in settlement houses like Hull House. - The settlement house works to ensure the transition from work to America by teaching them to forget their culture - The implicit assumption of someone that their culture is wrong and that the American culture is better. - Jane Addams fights strenuously against democratic politicians so manipulative people like Boss Tweed don't get all the power and money What are Indians by the late nineteenth century? - They are “in the way” of America - We make them move to reservations and we kill them - However, women social reformers see the way we are treating Indians and want to do something about it. 6 Wednesday, February 3, 2016 - So, in 1882, a women social reformer named Helen Hunt Jackson writes a book called A Century of Dishonor - In 1884, the Indian Rights Association (IRA) is created and its members consists of social reformers and not one Native American is on it - “To be an American, they have to dress like an American.” - Native Americans are shipped to boarding schools, the most famous athlete there being Jim Thorpe 7


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