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Ch. 1 Lecture Notes - HMD 211

by: Pegah Sepehr

Ch. 1 Lecture Notes - HMD 211 211

Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Health Sciences > 211 > Ch 1 Lecture Notes HMD 211
Pegah Sepehr
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About this Document

These notes cover what we discussed in class over chapter 1
Human Nutrition
Dr. Cook-Newell
Class Notes
Human Nutrition




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Pegah Sepehr on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 211 at Western Kentucky University taught by Dr. Cook-Newell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Human Nutrition in Health Sciences at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Ch. 1- What is Nutrition? -Nutrition: science of food that makes us go ---> how nutrients and compounds in foods nourish and affect body functions and health -Nutrients: chemical compounds in foods to provide fuel for energy (measured in kilocalories), growth, and maintenance and regulate the body processes -6 Classes of Nutrients: 1. Carbs 2. Fats 3. Protein 4. Vitamins 5. Minerals 6. Water -Phytochemicals: nonnutrient compounds that contribute to health and may play a role in fighting chronic disease -We choose foods for many other reasons beyond the basic need to obtain nutrients -80/20 rule: if you eat what you should 80% of the times, then 20% of the time, you can eat what ever -Nitrogen is an essential element for the body -Chronic deficiencies, excesses, and imbalances of nutrients can affect health -The 6 classes of nutrients are all essential in the diet to maintain bodily function -Macronutrients: energy-yielding nutrient needed in higher amounts; all are organic (contains carbon); they provide energy ---> carbs, lipids, proteins -Micronutrients: needed in smaller amounts; don’t provide energy ---> vitamins, minerals -Crucifilus leaves (on broccoli) can protect from cancer -Carbs provide energy and supply glucose (major energy source) -Proteins provide energy, growth/maintenance/support, regulates body processes -Fats provide energy and are a major fuel source, growth/maintenance/support, and regulate body processes. They cushion organs -Vitamins (organic) and minerals (inorganic) provide NO energy, and they help with growth/maintenance/support, and regulate body processes. They are also essential for metabolism. They assist enzymes in speeding up chemical reactions in the body -Water is HUGE for regulation -Carbs contain straight glucose -Proteins contain nitrogen atoms (unlike carbs and fats) -To calculate the amount of energy a food provides: Multiply the total grams of a nutrient by the number of calories per gram –--> 1 gram of carbs or protein= 4 calories ---> 1 gram of fat = 9 calories -Proteins can provide energy, but are better for: 1. Growth and Maintenance of muscles, tissues, and organs 2. Making hormones, enzymes, healthy immune system 3. Transporting other nutrients -The best way to meet your nutrient needs is with a well-balanced diet that includes: 1. Essential nutrients from all six classes 2. Fiber& phytochemicals ---> don’t provide energy (whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are rich in these sources) -A supplement can be beneficial when: 1. A nutrients needs are higher Ex. Pregnant women need an iron supplement to meet increased needs 2. When diet restrictions exist Ex. Lactose-intolerant individuals (difficulty digesting milk products) may choose a calcium supplement to help meet needs) -Well-balanced diet and supplements are not mutually exclusive; they ban be partnered for good health ---> 6mg of iron is average for women, 8mg of iron is average for men -The Average American diet is high in: Sodium Saturated fat Calories -It’s low in: Vitamin D Calcium Fiber - Vitamin C can lower a male’s chances of prostate cancer -Incidence of overweight and obesity is on the rise -Adults: 65% are overweight and 36% are obese; Children: 12% aged 2-5 are obese and 18% aged 6-19 are obese -The cause of obesity and overweight people are because of the consumption of more calories than needed and the burning of fewer calories due to sedentary lifestyles. The effects of this is having an increased rate of type 2 diabetes (especially children), heart disease, cancer, and stroke -Improving Americans’ diets is one goal of Healthy People 2020 -Nutritional Genomics: study of how specific food components affect gene expression in your cells and thereby your health ---> example: may help determine the specific dietary combination of fats needed to lower your risk of heart disease based on your unique genetic makeup -Scientific method: process used by scientists to generate sound research findings Step 1: observe, ask questions, and formulate a hypothesis (idea based on observation) Step 2: conduct an experiment to test the hypothesis Step 3: share finding in a peer-reviewed journal (research publication for scientists) -Observational research: involves looking at factors in two or more groups of subjects to see outcomes ---> Epidemiological research: study of populations of people-Example: Relationship of sun exposure and incidence of rickets in Norway compared with Australia -Experimental research: involves at least two groups of subjects ---> Experimental group: given a specific treatment ---> Control group: given a placebo (sugar pill), and a double blind placebo controlled experiment is a “gold standard” -Registered dietitian (RD): completed at least a bachelor’s degree at an accredited U.S. college or university and a supervised practice, and passed a national exam administered by the American Dietetic Association -Public health nutritionist: has a degree in nutrition but is not an RD (if didn’t complete supervised practice, not eligible to take ADA exam) -Licensed dietitian (LD): licensed by state licensing agencies -Advice from authoritative health and nutrition organizations is based on a consensus, which is the opinion of a group of experts based on collection of information -Before making dietary and lifestyle changes based on media reports, read with a critical eye -Wait until research findings are confirmed and consensus reached by reputable health organizations before making changes -National Institutes of Health (NIH) 10 questions consider when viewing a health-related website 1. Who runs the site? 2. Who pays for the site? 3. What is the purpose of the site? 4. Where does the information come from? 5. What is the basis of the information? 6. How is the information selected? 7. How currents is the information? 8. How does the site choose links to other sites? 9. What information does the site collect about you and why? 10. How does the site manage interactions with visitors? -Always be aware of health quackery and fraud


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