New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 5 Notes

by: Jack Bethke

Week 5 Notes Hstaa 212

Jack Bethke

Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Military History of the United States
Nathan Roberts
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Military History of the United States

Popular in History

This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jack Bethke on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hstaa 212 at University of Washington taught by Nathan Roberts in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 86 views. For similar materials see Military History of the United States in History at University of Washington.


Reviews for Week 5 Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/06/15
Week 5 222015 Demobilizations After the Civil War 0 Gilded Age Looks better on the outside than the inside Poor working conditions for workers in new industrialized factories Lots of corruption in government and lots of strikes from those workers Soldiers were used as strikebreakers Regular troops worked well but National Guard units often lack discipline 0 National Guard killed 100 workers at a railroad strike in 1877 0 Army duties Demobilizations from 1 million volunteers in 1865 to 11000 regulars by 1866 Fighting on the frontier forcing Indians onto reservations Also still building the infrastructure of the West Black Soldiers 0 2 infantry and 2 cavalry regiments o Called quotBuffalo Soldiersquot 0 Army was a good way for blacks to get out of the south and make something of themselves during the initial repression caused byJim Crow laws Soldiers 0 Many were immigrants at this time and many are also poor Join the army to get out of crappy situations in the east The Army has poor pay food and conditions however 0 Indians are more effective with ri es on horseback than many of the cavalry troopers were The American39s were not trained well 0 Also had low morale in the west Indians are defending their homes and lifestyle The US soldiers have a less clear duty that often involves killing women and children 0 National Guard is established in 1879 Had the militia ideal at rst in tune with America39s fear of the government Higher ups were worried at the irregularity of the militia idea some militias would be better trained than others They apply for federal funding to better train their troops which is granted in 1903 0 Weapons in the 1870s Breech loading and repeating ri es Colt Revolvers become a very reliable sidearm 6shooter The Gatling gun is a precursor to the machine gun 0 New tactics to ght on the plains No cover cavalry trained their horses to lie down and be used forcover 0 New ideas about soldiers and of cers many from Gen Emory Upton who travelled around Europe after the Civil War and made a number of recommendations for the American Army Almost always went towards centralization and more federal power Merge the national guard with the regular troops Wanted to separate the army from any in uence by congress US Navy 0 From 70052 ships following the Civil War 0 Proponents of a strong navy wanted more ironclads and gunships but this is expensive and many don39t want to pay 0 Navy becomes a defensive arm of the military 0 Hemispheric Policy protecting the Western Hemisphere from European imperial encroachment Did so with wooden ships This policy is completely reversed in the next 30 years 0 Empire of Liberty Beginning of imperialism in US 0 O O 0 Empire at this time meant an expanding nation From Jefferson and other s point of view how could this be bad if we were spreading Hbe y This was a view from the very beginning of the US always looking west West is a problem because there are people there The Federal gov makes it seem like it is an empty land Indians are angry about this encroachment Sioux Tribes rises up in 1862 during the Civil War in South Dakota John Pope is sent to ght them The treaty signed by the Sioux was ignored by American settlers who were in turn attacked by the Sioux o Becomes a different sort of war than the US had fought before Involves the execution of combatants o 38 Sioux leaders were hung Becomes a common tactic used by US forces 0 Captured Confederates at the same time as this were not executed Has to do with the makeup of quotsavagesquot as some in the US Army saw the Indians American tradition for dealing with lndian39s was treaties where the US acknowledged that the tribe39s had autonomy and that the US would respect the lands left aside for the Indians The Homestead Act in 1862 leads to a greater number of settlers moving westward Army has to take policy from people who support the extermination of the Indians and others who felt the Indians should be given the bene ts of civilization Friends of the Indians was a group that wanted peaceful assimilation of Indians into white society Wanted to get rid of their quotIndiannessquot 0 Sand Creek Massacre 200 women and children Arapaho and Cheyenne were murdered by a regiment led by Colonel John Chivington while the Indian men were out hunting Capt Simon Soule a member of Chivington39s unit ordered his men not to re Was murdered before he could speak out against Chivington39s actions 0 Understanding Genocide Means the extermination of people It is a state run campaign to violently eradicate a population The term is used more commonly after the Holocaust In the US wars against Indians were never mandated by the Federal gov 0 US signed treaties and didn39t always follow through with them Often had settlers causing trouble and once hostilities began the army would be sent in to settle the situation 0 Atrocities were committed but usually on the orders of independently acting of cers rather than the Federal gov Localized genocide 0 Gold Rush California 0 Rouge River War Oregon Used as a term for extermination of culture that is what the US was doing 0 Wanted to eliminate what the Indians stood for their traditional culture 0 Kill the Indian save the man 0 Nez Perce War 1877 SW Idaho and eastern Oregon Some Nez Perce refused to live on the reservation set up in SW Idaho Moved north towards Canada The treaty drafted for the Nez Perce as well as many treaties drafted for many other tribes did not fully understand how the Native Americans organized themselves politically o Often US would assume that one chief spoke for all of the tribes in the area Settlers moving in engaged in raid and counterraid against the remaining Nez Perce until the US army came in to intervene Army chases ChiefJoseph and his band of warriors over a 1500 mile ghting retreat towards Canada 0 Joseph was able to hold together his coalition all while ghting the US Retreat ends on Sept 30th at the Battle of Bearpaw Joseph and many of his followers were sent to prisons around the US including Leavenworth in Kansas 0 War with the Apaches 1880s One of the last major groups to resist American encroachment Led by Geronimo 0 Ghost Dance Resistance Felt that certain rituals would stop the Americans from continuing their advance and would also allow the NA39s to go back to their ancestral lands Required many NA39s to leave their reservations in order to participate in the rituals Wounded Knee Massacre in 1891 involving NA39s who had left their reservation was perpetrated by US soldiers Essentially ended all native resistance to the American westward movement 0 US thinks of themselves as a better sort of empire than that of Britain or France America educates ad assimilates people at least in the American view better than the European empires Looking Abroad Naval Advancements in Professionalization and Modernization o In order to go abroad America needs a stronger and more professional navy o The Wars on the Plains are over American gov feels like the navy needs to modernize more than the army The American gov doesn39t see a need for a large expeditionary land force now that the Indians were subdued 0 New naval ships ABCD Atlanta Boston Steelhulledsteampowered Travel around the world in gunboat diplomacy 0 Alfred Thayer Mahan becomes in uential in the modernization of the navy Wrote The In uence of Sea Power Upon History 16601782 0 The Naval Academy at Annapolis is created Brain child of Rear Admiral Luce Wanted a navy of bigger and faster ships which could compete with any navy in the world People questioned what this expanded navy would accomplish 0 Of ce of Naval Intelligence 0 Theodore Roosevelt Asst Secretary of the Navy at the time of Manahan39s book Interested in protecting America39s power around the world 0 New battleships are created in the 18905 8 new battleships by 1900 They are more expensive but also more effective Have rotating gun turrets o Claiming territories overseas US agriculture needed fertilizer which America could not produce 0 Guano from uninhabited islands in the Paci c gives US the fertilizer that they need o Leads to the Guano Island Act 1856 which gave navy the ability to purchase islands in order to gain access to the guano Midway is annexed in 1867 Hawaii is annexed in 1896 Gunboat Diplomacy O 0 Means US naval ships will dock themselves off of major ports in countries where America is making diplomacy Another role of the navy is to be nearby where US citizens especially business related matters might need help in foreign territories called Imperial Constabulary Rebellion in Cuba in 1895 Threatens US sugar plantations in Cuba America becomes fearful for her citizens in Cuba Dispatches the USS Maine to Havana harbor With the Maine in Havana some people think that this is the time to take over Cuba In 1898 the USS Maine blows up in Havana harbor killing 260 sailors onboard Many of the people in favor of annexing Cuba were newspaper owners especially William Hearst s papers These papers without any actual evidence reported that the Spanish had blown up the Maine in order to stir up fervor for war This sort of reporting is called Yellow Journalism 0 A naval investigation found inconclusive evidence of an attack a boiler probably exploded 0 Gave enough incentive to convince Pres McKinley to declare war 0 1898 SpanishAmerican War 0 O 0 Strategy was to have a quick naval based war in the Spanish colonies Wanted to avoid attacking Spain if possible Naval militia 4000 of cers and sailors Were important because the navy was often undermanned First time that the Naval War College was able to show off its of cers Manila Bay The Philippines Commodore Dewey is dispatched to Manila to take over the Spanish colonies there Was able to quickly destroy the Spanish eet there mostly due to the antiquated state of the Spanish eet Dewey becomes the face of the war effort Army mobilization Terrible mobilization Ongoing tension over the size of the force 0 Some wanted as many as 150000 troops and to expand the regular forces of the army 0 Congress wants this to be cheaper relies more on the militia National Guard is mobilized as are volunteers 0 One volunteer is Teddy Roosevelt who resigns from his Asst Secretary of the Navy post and forms the 1St Cavalry Regiment quotThe Rough Ridersquot Black troops mostly volunteers were also mobilized o Confusion in Tampa Fla Troops headed for Cuba massed in Tampa which became a logistical nightmare Much of the cavalry gets shipped to Cuba without horses 0 US navy to Cuba 1898 Went around to the south side of the island Feared that the Spanish would attack the US on the open ocean USN heads to Santiago a forti ed bay and waits for the Spanish eet to bottle itself up in the bay 0 Planned by the Naval War College There are not any joint operations between the navy and the army both want more credit than the other but they are both trying to take over Santiago 0 Army problems Disease claims many lives quickly Unmodern weapons black powder weapons gave away soldiers positions SanJuan Hill Promoted by Teddy Roosevelt a cavalry charge perpetrated by cavalry troopers on foot 0 When they got to the top of the hill Roosevelt found that the 9th and 10th Cavalry regiments black troopers were already on top of the hill Roosevelt sent them back down the hill to get supplies and then tried to have the black soldiers arrested for abandoning the battle 0 Battle of Santiago US army is being aided the entire time by the Cuban Revolutionaries The revolutionaries help them take Santiago After taking the town the navy leaves to refuel at Guantanamo where they are surprised by the Spanish navy USN recovers and defeats the Spanish essentially ending the war in the Caribbean 0 Spanish Territories US takes over Guam in the paci c in June 1900 and Puerto Rico in July Leaves only the Philippines Dewey secures victory Spanish governor comes to an agreement with Dewey to have a staged battle before the US entered the city 0 US takes control of the Philippines 0 Filipino resistance movement Followed Jose Rizal and others who had been educated in Spain The resistance saw opportunity in the SpanishAmerican War wanted to help the US throw out the Spanish Filipino freedom ghters were led by Emilio Aguinaldo who came to a military agreement with Dewey for his country39s independence America agrees to their independence but then changes Her mind and annexes the islands becomes a counterrevolutionary force Begins a PhilippineAmerican war which lasts from 18991902 and beyond Becomes the next race war quotthe negroes of the pacificquot See the Filipino39s as a racial 39other39 Fights the Filipino39s like they had the Native Americans 0 US Naval Intelligence uses torture including water boarding used to extract information 0 Use terms like 39nigger39 and 39gook to dehumanize the Filipino39s AntiWar Tradition o Antiimperialism League Led by the most in uential Americans Included Mark Twain Jane Addams Andrew Carnegie 0 Speaking out against war is as American as ghting in one there are always groups saying that war is not in Americas best interest Guerilla War and Massacres o Massacre of US troops by villagers outside Balangiga In response the army rounds up civilians into concentration camps on Samar island 0 Moro Muslim massacre at Bud Dojo Same as Wounded Knee or other massacres before it 0 Americans largely forget about the ugly details of this Americans remember an 39exceptional American empire America did not annex Cuba helped them draft a constitution Philippines were not so luclq America felt that the Filipino39s were not smart enough to govern themselves needed American guidance in America s opinion 0 World War I 0 Army does not modernize well even after the SpanishAmerican War Many still do not want America s army to become an expeditionary WWI pulls America into European wars Means that America has to change its logistics training and tactics in response to this war The SpanishAmerican war produces an isolationist movement Opponents to imperialism Remember the effects of the Spanish American War These isolationists still felt a strong navy was important to protecting America39s trading ventures around the world RussoJapanese war 190405 convinces American gov to form two large eets a Paci c and Atlantic eet 190708 quotThe Great White Fleetquot Pres Roosevelt sends a naval eet of advanced ships around the world to show off America s power The new navy Navy grows rapidly 2 new battleships per year 1520 Million each The ships have bigger guns and longer range Navy has 60000 sailors by 1918 Naval tech changes after the British navy releases the HMS Dreadnought in 1906 The biggest baddest ship on the seas Looks like a more modern battleship Navies classify their ships as pre and postDreadnought classes Submarines become an important part of naval war the German navy is especially successful at submarine warfare Makes naval warfare 3 dimensional Aircraft make land battles 3 dimensional Early aircraft are only good for photographs Billy Mitchel promotes a new air force in between the world wars becomes the leading advocate for the necessity of an advanced air force WWI as a war over empire European empires own most of the world and all of Africa Britain owns 25 of the world39s land People are considering what territories they could win in a war Also a family squabble most of the royalty in Europe are cousins and are angered by some having more territories than others 1916 Congressional Acts Passed in order to prepare America for entry into WWI Naval Act allowed for a further increase in naval power expands the amount of ships and sailors National Defense Act expands the National Guard to 400000 troops Federal gov starts taking more control of the militia Could send them abroad rather than just deploy them in America 0 Also creates the ROTC America knew that a reserve corps would be important Would eventually help solve the logistical problems that America had faced in previous wars A federal reserve force trained and ready to go o AEF American Expeditionary Force 1916 Organized under Gen John 39Blackjack Pershing Was the army force that would eventually be sent to Europe Britain and France envisioned an assimilation of American troops into the European armies Pershing wants an independent command of American soldiers which is eventually granted Cannot send enough troops right away America needs to train its troops Many of the American troops are using French and British weapons 0 Send 135000 troops initiay America39s military ranks around 17 globally National Guard swells the ranks of the AEF Many see a problem with forcing Americans to go ght in a war that they do not want to ght in congress passes the selective service act in 1917 a precursor to the draft Sort of a compromise between volunteer and draft 0 American troops are sent into Trench Warfare Disease is horrible the battle elds of WWI are essentially inhospitable to human life 0 Fields stretched with craters barbed wire booby traps etc Weapons outpaced tactics machine guns hold troops down in their trenches Americans were held in reserve mostly because the Europeans didn39t see the Americans as having a stomach for the type of war that they would be ghting 0 Chemical Warfare Mustard gas and others create a new element on the battle eld Not always effective cannot control where the gas goes once it is deployed Had to equip troops with gas masks to protect from gas attacks Once troops are up and moving if gas is present it makes troops susceptible to other forms of weapons such as machine guns and artillery Tactics need to be revised to deal with gas but mostly trenches and technology 0 AEF in WWI America did not bring about the Allied victory played a supporting role American offensives were minor compared to what the British and French did America successful at sweing the ranks and bringing supplies Ultimately 1 million Americans in 6 divisions fought in Europe 2 important offensives St Mihiel offensive 0 Good cooperation with aies 0 Tactical problems successful attacks had to be called back due to logistics MueseArgonne Offensive 0 Most massive logistical effort of the American military at the time 0 Had to move 600000 troops and all their equipment 60 miles 0 A successful offensive Negative attitudes felt by Allied troops regarding American troops are turned favorable 0 Freedom at home Espionage Act 1917 Supposed to crack down on foreign spies Also used to silence war criticizers Sedition Act 1918 0 Made it illegal to speak out against the war effort 0 Emma Goldman outspoken feminist war critic and anarchist is deprted under the Sedition Act Jim Crow America Blacks returning to America meet many black soldiers who do not live in a Jim Crow society 0 Many of these ideas that black troops encounter in Europe are brought back to the states 0 After WWI there are new movements againstJim Crow in America 0 What does it mean that black troops are ghting for America abroad and come home to a restricted life 0 WWII produces similar types of questions


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.