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Geology 105 Week 1 notes

by: Alexa Rains

Geology 105 Week 1 notes GEO 105

Alexa Rains
GPA 3.76
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About this Document

These notes cover parts I and II of Chapter 1.
Sustainable Earth
Dr. Lu Yuehan
Class Notes
Geology, Science, Natural Science




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rains on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 105 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Lu Yuehan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Sustainable Earth in Geology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
GEO  105  Chapter  1:  Planetary  Earth     The  Big  Bang  Theory     The  most  widely  accepted  dominant  scientific  theory  about  the  origin  of  the     universe     Georges  Lemaître,  1927     Approx.  14  billion  years  ago  (between  10  and  20  bya)     Mass  explosion  -­‐  particles  flung  outward  -­‐  dust  and  gases  collect  (gravity)  -­‐  planets     form  -­‐  galaxies  form  -­‐  galaxies  evolve  and  move  apart  -­‐  our  solar  system  forms  (5     bya)       Clouds  of  as  and  space  dust  contract.         Most  of  the  material  came  together  to  form  the  Sun.           Planets  began  to  accrete  from  material  orbiting  the  Sun.         One  star  and  eight  planets.     Evidence  for  the  Big  Bang  Theory:       "Light  elements"  Hydrogen  and  Helium  (most  abundant  element  in  the         observable  universe)       Galaxies  appear  to  be  moving  away  from  us  (still  expanding)       Remnant  heat  was  detected  in  the  universe   Planet  Composition     Resulted  from  proximity  to  the  hot  Sun     Planets  closer  to  the  Sun:         Metallic  iron,  high  temperature  minerals       Planets  farther  from  the  Sun:         Low  temperature  minerals,  water,  gas     Origin  of  the  Earth     4.6  bya       Larger  in  size  than  today’s  Earth         Lots  of  volcanic  activity         No  continents  or  oceans         No  life           Earth  was  formed  by  gaining  mass  from  meteoric  bombardment  until  3.8  bya     Density  Stratification  Creates  a  Layered  Earth         Started  as  a  molten  &  hot  body;         As  cooling  progressed,  denser  materials  sunk  toward  the  middle  of  the         earth         Lighter,  low-­‐density  minerals  floated  out  toward  the  surface.       Density  Stratification  Creates  a  Layered  Earth  Compositional  Structure             Iron  and  Oxygen  are  the  most  abundant  elements  within  the             earth       Continental  Crust  -­‐  granitic       Oceanic  Crust  -­‐  basalt           Oxygen  and  Silicon  are  the  most  abundant  elements  in  the             earth’s  crust       Mantle  -­‐  iron-­‐rich  solicates       Core  -­‐  iron  and  nickel         The  density  of  the  elements:         Iron:  7.874  g/cm3       Oxygen:  0.0014  g/cm3       Silicon:  2.3296  g/cm3       Nickel:  8.912  g/cm3   Physical  Structure  of  the  earth     Based  on  abrupt  changes  in  seismic  wave  velocities     Current  Earth     Third  planet  from  the  Sun       Mean  temperature  15  degrees  C,  not  too  hot  or  cold     Oxygen  supports  life       2/3  of  the  area  is  covered  by  ocean       Life  diversity       Moderate  tectonic  activities     Origin  of  the  Oceans  (4.6  bya)       Water  vapor  and  other  gases  separated  out  from  the  rocks  that  make  up  the  bulk  of     the  Earth  and  were  outgassed  on  the  surface,  forming  the  atmosphere  and  the     oceans       Or...       Water  was  delivered  (in  the  form  of  ice)  by  comets         The  ice  analyzed  from  comets  Halley  and  Hyakutake  is  isotopically  different         than  ocean  water       Normal  water:  H2O         Heavy  water:  D2O,  HDO       Comets  cannot  have  delivered  ALL  the  water  in  the  Earth’s  oceans         However,  isotopic  evidence  supports  that  water  may  come  from  protoplanets       formed  in  the  outer  asteroid  belt  that  plunged  towards  the  Earth     Origin  of  the  Atmosphere       First  stage  (?-­‐4.4  bya)       Atmosphere  unknown       Outgassing    -­‐  volcanoes  erupted,  releasing  water  vapor,  carbon  dioxide,         nitrogen,  and  sulfur  compounds  into  the  atmosphere       Second  Stage  (4.4  bya  -­‐  2.5  bya)       Mostly  nitrogen       Carbon  dioxide;  water  vapor;  methane,  and  ammonia     Third  stage  (2.5  bya  -­‐  now)       Nitrogen  is  most  abundant  for  its  stability         Carbon  dioxide  transferred  to  geosphere       Oxygen!  -­‐-­‐-­‐  life!           Evolution  of  oxygen           Banded  Iron  Formation  (BIF)  2.4-­‐1.8billon  years  ago             Photosynthesis  Releases  Oxygen  to  the  Atmosphere               Cyanobacteria  about  3.5  bya  -­‐  producing  oxygen  to  react  with             early  iron  and  sulfur             Atmospheric  Oxygen  started  to  rise  about  2  bya     Life  started....       We  still  do  not  know  when  and  where  life  started       Archaea  (believed  to  be  the  most  ancient  forms  of  life)       Where  did  the  life  come  from?         Extraterrestrial–  outer  space         Hydrothermal  vents  


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