Module 2 up to week 2 notes
Module 2 up to week 2 notes PSYC 1101
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Clark on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Welsh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Elem Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
COGNITION How Good Is Your Memory? Assuming this is your first Psychology course, the type of memory retrieval being tested right now with this question is: a) Recognition b) Recall c) Relearning d) sensory Recall: must retrieve info from memory without any cues. On an exam, it will be a short- answer, essay, or fill in the blank (without a bank) question. Recognition: must select previously learned information from list of options; in other worse, retrieve info from memory WITH cues/hints/triggers. On an exam, it will be a multiple-choice answer with the possible answers being the cues. Recognition is generally easier than recall, but only if you actually know the information. Xci rdn adi mqz 10/18 Xci afb ivc rdn aib mqz 18 Att cbs fbi nasa uga ibm 18/18 What type of memory was being tested here? Short term memory Around how many letters should you expect people to remember? 7 +- 2 (5-9) Why could you remember more letters on the second list? Chunking: Combining information into bigger chunks that are meaningful to you so you can increase Short Term Memory capacity Are the following things examples of Implicit or Explicit memories? Are they episodic, semantic, or procedural memories? 1. Knowing the different types of memory – semantic 2. Writing your name – procedural 3. Knowing the words to the Pledge of allegiance of the US – semantic, could be procedural 4. Knowing the type of cake your friend had at her birthday party last week - episodic 5. Remembering the last thing you said to your ex before it was over - episodic 6. Tying your shoe – procedural Procedurals are always implicit Long-Term Explicit (Declarative) Episodic Semantic Implicit (Nondeclarative) Procedural (skills) Priming Classical Conditioning People are more likely to remember the first word in a list – primacy effect / serial position effect. People are more likely to remember the last word in a list than one in the middle – recency effect. It’s still in your short term memory. If you were read a list of words, then had to work on math problems for 5 minutes, THEN had to write down words you remember, the recency effect would be wiped away by the distractions, but the primacy would probably still be true. Memory is a reconstruction. It is not a perfect replication of what we’ve experienced. Memory is spread out in the brain, so every time we’re trying to retrieve a memory, we have to grab them from certain places across the brain, so they are often altered each time we try to retrieve the memory. Memory is a reconstruction, recreated during each retrieval from scattered connections in our brains. - Affected by context, assumptions, biases, emotions, previous reconstructions, etc We encode information when we pay attention to it and are active with the information. You don’t learn it as well if you’re just rereading and are passive, but if you are active it will be easier to learn. You will also remember something better if you space out time in between going over the material again. This is called the spacing effect. Learning Behaviorism: an empirically rigorous science focused on observable behaviors and not unobservable internal mental processes Pavlov studied digestive systems of dog, expanded this study to study their behaviors. Learning: the process of acquiring, through experience, new and relatively enduring information or behaviors. Associative Learning: when a subject links certain events, behaviors, or stimuli together in the process of conditioning Pavlov’s experiment: - Before conditioning, unconditioned stimulus like food makes dog have natural response of drooling. Neutral stimulus of bell ringing means nothing to the dog. - During conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus (food) is paired with the neutral stimulus (bell), which causes natural response (drooling). This is repeated. - After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (bell) has now become a conditioned stimulus, because the dog has now been conditioned to drool (conditioned response) each time the bell rings. Classical Conditioning: a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events. It shows how a process like learning can actually be studied through direct observation of behavior. Watson studied behaviorism and conditioned humans (babies). Operant Conditioning: a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher Skinner created a chamber/box which helped him study the idea of positive and negative reinforcements.
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