New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Repro notes (1)

by: Paige Owens

Repro notes (1) Animal Science 320

Paige Owens

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes are from day one up until January 29, 2016
Dr. Lannet Edwards
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Repro

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology

This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Owens on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Animal Science 320 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Lannet Edwards in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 95 views. For similar materials see Repro in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.

Similar to Animal Science 320 at UT

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology


Reviews for Repro notes (1)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/30/16
It takes two…  To reproduce or not? o Importance of reproduction:  Perpetuation of the species  Provide food  Genetic improvement  Sequence of reproduction (see chart) o Prenatal development o Puberty o Regulation of reproduction o Cyclicity o Ovulation and fertilization o Embryo development  ~2,000 years after aristotle o Fallopius (1562)  Described the oviduct o Coiter, a student of fallopius(1573)  Discovered the corpus luteum o Regnier de Graff (1672)  Described the antral follicle (Graafian follicle)  1 Vas Deferens  2 Bladder  3 ampulla  4 Vesicular glands  5 rectum  6 prostate  7 bulbourethral gland calpers  8 RPM retractile penile muscle  9 sigmoid flexor  10 shaft  11 epididymis caput/head  12 corpus body  13 tail caudal  14 tunica dartos  15 gubernaculum  16 testses  17 Scrotum  18 Glans penis  19 panpinaform plexus  20 spermatic cord Mediastinim is the white line in the middle of the testis. Manufacturing complex  Produced in the testis and then goes into the epididymis head o After it is made in the testis there are a number of things that have to happen. It goes through the body of the epididymis through to the tail. The tail is a warehouse, the sperm sits there before it can be shipped out. Ejaculatory reserves reside in the tail. They have finite numbers. Limited number of sperm in that region that actually contribute to ejaculation. Just about 5-10 ejaculates. o Goes up through the vas deferens where glands contribute to mixture. o Then it goes to the penis for delivery. But an erection, penetration are very important for delivery The vascicular glands in the boar are bigger because they contribute different amounts of secretions. o Testes are bigger in boars as well. o Testis size doesn’t always co-inside with animal size  Three orientations of testis o Vertical  Hanging straight down for warmth Head is up, tail is down  Oblique  Slanted towards the sky, needs to be furthest away  Ex. boar  Horizontal  Tightly held close to body  Species differences in the pelvic genetalia  Ram- no prostate body  If animals don’t have the bulbous prostate structure then it will have a dissiminate prostate  Boar- no ampulla, large vesecular glands and cowpers glands.  Stallion  Has prostate but no disseminate gland.  Human  No disseminate prostate large prostate body.  Prostate eventually enlarges  60~50% males will have one by 60.  Dog  No seminal vesicles, large prostate  Tom  No seminal vesicles  No disseminate prostate  Accessory sex glands  Contributes to fluid volume of an ejaculate  Cowper's/bulbourethral  Vesicular glands  Seminal prostate  Clotting enzymes help to keep sperm inside female.  Penis type  Fibro elastic  penises cannot expand much during an erection because of the T unica Albugenia.  Muscular vascular  More erectile tissue  Corpus Cavernosium softer with larger sinuses  No sigmoid flexure  Glands penis  Tom has androgen dependent penile spines, creates simulation for inducing ovulation in the female Neuroendocrine control of reproduction  Neural/chemical communication that occurs between the cells and tissues.  Endocrine glands  Hormones  Target tissues o Endocrine glands  Ductless  Secrete chemical agents (i.e. hormones) directly into bloodstream, lymph or other  Travel via blood to target organ/tissue/cells where they regulate specific physiologic activities o Exocrine glands  Ducts  Secrete externally (not into the bloodstream) Once the hormone is released into the bloodstream it then travels to the target tissue and looks for its only receptor. If it find the right receptor then it will bind to it. o Hormones  Chemical substances produced by endocrine glands or tissue that are carried in the blood to a target organ/tissue with elicit a change in cellular activity (i.e. physiological response) after bunging to its receptor  Messenger  Arrives to deliver a message  Acts as a catalyst  Gets things going  Can act on same cell/tissue that produced  Paracrine and autocrine  Works through specific receptors. o Presence of detection of hormones  Physiological fluids  Blood, urine, saliva, lymph, tears, and feces  Detection  Radioimmunoassays  Radioactive hormones  Complete with native hormone in animals blood  ELISAs  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay  Pregnancy test for women  Bioassays o Typical patterns of concentrations  Episodic pattern  Neurocontrol ex. Releasing hormones of hypothalamus  GnRH  Basal pattern  Time  hormone stays low but fluctuates  Sustained  Elevated longer periods  Ex. Steroids o Properties/classification of hormones  Chemical structure  General structure  Peptides/proteins  Steroids  Fatty acids  Modified amino acids  Size  Site of production  Type of action  1 hormone of reproduction  Metabolic hormone o Peptide/protein hormones  Amino acids  Water soluble  Denatured by strong acids, bases and heat  Effectiveness depends on i.v, i.m, or s.c administration  CAN NOR BE ADMINISTERED ORALLY o Steriod hormines  Special class of lipids  Cholesterol is a precursor  Cholesterol---->pregenolone---- >progesterone---->testosterone---- >estradiol  Soluble in organic solvents  Not water soluble  May be absorbed by the GI tract  Varies with natural steroid (E vs P vs A)  Can be given orally o Fatty acid hormone  Biologically active lipids  Do not fit classical hormone definition  Not produced by endocrine gland  Produced by the cells throughout body  Typically act at production site  Few cases where site of action of another tissue/organ  Rapidly degraded in mammals o Phospholipids  Arcidonic acid  PGE2  Vasodialation  Keeps pregancy  Ovulation  And implantation  PGF2a  Kills CL o Modified amino acid hormone  Melatonin  Secreted from pineal gland  Integrates effect of light on repro process  Seasonal breeders o Repro hormones  Primary  Regulate reproductive processes  Secondary  Regulate other physiological systems but also influence reproductive processes  Ex. IGF-1, GH, TSH o Important endocrine glands  Pineal  Hypothalmus  Pitituitary  Adrenal cortex  Uturus  Ovaries  Placenta  Testes o How the pituitary and hypothalmus are connected  The hypothalmus and the pituitary are connected by the hypotyseal portal system(stalk). The hypo. Is a neuroendricne gland because it had specilized nerve cell bodies. This place makes hormones critical for reproduction. GnRH is made here, and the goes to portal system and then goes to the anterior pituitary. Goes to its receptor, and releases LH and FSH. Oxytocin is made in this region of the hypo. And then it is stored in the posterior pituitary.  The major releasing hormone is GnRH, once it makes its way to the anterior pituitary and finds the gonaditrope cells it it can release LH and FSH  GnRH target tissues: anterior pituitary- gonadatroph cells:release of gonadotropins FSH and LH  CRH (Cortictropin Releasing Hormone) Causes the release of ACTH, important for birth  Surge center and tonic center (GnRH production and release  Surge center  Expect a big surge of GnRH from this region  Tonic center  In the mean time  Hypotheseal portal system  Carries the RH to Anterior pituitary without dillution in systemic circulation. Not going to be living in the blood stream for quite as long. Has short life 1/2  LH and FSH provide gonadal support  Prolactin comes from the pituitary  FSH  Glyco protein  Target cells  Ovary-granulosa cells  Testes-sertoli cells  Principle functions  Follicle growth  Estrogen production  Sertoli cell function  Spermatogenesis  LH  Glyco protein  Target cells  Ovary-theca interna cell and corpus luteum  Testes-leydig cells  Functions  Ovulation  CL formation and progesterone production  Testosterone production o Posterior pituitary  Hypothalmic nuclei  Paraventricular nuclues (PVN)  Extension of the hypothalmus  Oxytocin is made in the hypothalmus and is stored in the posterior pituitary  Does not for through HPS o Oxytocin  Neuro peptide  Mammary gland  Myoepothelial cells  Uterus o In females  If you have a CL present the LH will bind to the CL cells to produce pogesterone  FSH causes production of estrogen inhibit LH goes to a Folicle  Estrogens  Estradiol 17b  Estriol  Estrone  Progestins  Progesterone  17-hydroxyprogesterone  20 b-dihydroprogesterone  Androgens o Estrogen: female sex hormone  Allows for mating behavior to be exhibited o Progesterone:  Major inhibitor of mating behavior o Testosterone  Substrate for estrogen production Males o LH bind its receptors to leydig cells to rlease testeostrone o FSH binds to receptors called sertoli cells and produces inhibin  Sperm is made here o Testosterone  Steroid  Leydig cells  Mating behavior  Anabobic growth  Spermatogenesis o Inhibin  Glycoprotein  Sertoli cells Placental hormones o Human Chorionic Gonadotropin ( human pregnancy test)  Trophoblast  LH like involved with establishment of pregnancy in woman  Supports and maintains CL Fatty acid hormones o Prostagladin f2a Hormone potency o Half-life  Talking about the rate the hormone has cleared circulation  The longer the half life the more of an opportunity it has to be around o Receptor density o Hormone receptor affinity Receptors o Recognition unit o Binds to a hormone with a high affinity o Initiates a series of intracellular events to bring about a physiological response o Rc Numbers regulator degree of stimulation of cellular response o Receptor number are impacted by endocrine status  Hormones can increase (upregulate) or decrease (down regulate) receptors o Receptor density  General model for receptor structure Once the hormine finds and binds its receptor there's a lot of things it has to do to produce things that are being released like estosterone from leydig cells o Extracellular domain o Transmembrane domain o Intracellular domain o Hormone-receptor binding  Initiates a series of untracellular signaling event A hormone a\ promary messenger binds to its receptor uses the cAMP 2nd messenger Activats the g protein and you get adenylate cucyase Atp is converted to camp Protein kinase New protein New protein products for reproduction o Once LH gets to its receptor o It uses the cAMP and binds o It activates adenylate cyclase o cAMP o Transcription and the MRNA o New proteins are made and the the mitochondria turn the cholesterol into testosterone Anterior pituitaary hormones and placental hormones use cAMP messanger o Hormone ex. o GnRH  Triggers release of LH in anterior pituitary o Pxytocin  Triggers contraction of smooth muscle o PGF2a  Triggers apoptosis of cell  Inhibiotion of progesterone synthesis


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.