chapter 3: part 2
chapter 3: part 2 Com 212
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kathleen Welling on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Com 212 at Purdue University taught by Douglas Edward Pruim in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 308 views. For similar materials see Approaches to the Study of Interpersonal Communication in Journalism and Mass Communications at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Chapter 3 Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal communication came before language It is very important Nonverbal usually initiates verbal eye contact handshake wave etc People especially competent at reading others nonverbal messages are labeled intuitive and those who send more nonverbals are called expressive What is nonverbal Communication 47 We can t call every nonverbal act communication because it becomes to vague and loses its meaning So 3 conditions are attached to nonverbal behaviors before they are considered acts of communication 1 Perceived consciously by either the sender or the receiver 2 Intended as a message by the sender 3 Interpreted by the receiver as intended Spontaneous Communication 48 refers to a sender s involuntary display of inner emotional states and a receiver s direct and immediate sensory awareness of those states Biological based system that we share with other animals a re ection of our inner emotions When we get happy so we smile unintentionally Symbolic Communication 48 involves the use of arbitrary symbols socially defined and intended to convey specific messages Language is the obvious one but it is not nonverbal Nonverbal ones include the puppy dog face or intentionally putting on a happy face for something Aspects of nonverbal codes that make them so powerful 49 1 Nonverbal codes are frequently given more credence and are more trusted than verbal forms of communication 2 Nonverbal codes are more emotionally powerful 3 Nonverbal codes while in uenced by culture do express more universal meaning Happiness anger disgust fear surprise and sadness are all UNIVERSAL expressions 4 Nonverbal codes are continuous and natural 5 Nonverbal codes occur in clusters Functions of Nonverbal Codes 50 1 Express meaning in and of themselves How we feel about other people and how we see ourselves in relationship to them There are three dimensions of feeling 0 Liking or disliking 0 Status how important or in uential we think we are in relation to others 0 Responsiveness how aware we are of the other person and what level of involvement we feel with him or her 2 Modify verbal messages Some nonverbals stand on their own but some work in conjunction with verbal messages 0 Complementing nonverbal elaboration of the verbal message o Repeating nonverbally to help get the message across saying yes and nodding head 0 Substituting a cold stare instead of saying quotnoquot 0 Contradicting Yeah I ve got plenty of time keeps looking at watch wont sit down 3 Regulate the ow of interaction Nonverbal control the smoothness of taking turns avoiding long pauses changing topics and signaling when it is over Nonverbal communication must be seen as three interlocking systems visual auditory and invisible communication systems 53 Visual comm System codes of proxemics use of space kinesics gestures body movement face behavior and artifacts physical appearance clothing accessories Auditory comm System vocalics or paralinguistics Invisible comm System chronemics use of time olfactics smell and haptics touch or tactile powerful but less easily detected codes Visual Communication System As humans we are visual More likely to act on what we see than what we feel or hear Proxemics the study of messages sent when people use or adjust to changes in the spatial environment people adjust their distance when speaking to each other and if they changed locations then they might have different actions Ex in a hallway vs in a large very busy room 0 Environmental preferences we react to our environment uniquely but we are also genetically and culturally programmed to react in more similar ways I Arousalnonarousal I Dominancesubmissiveness I Pleasuredispleasure o Territoriality the legal or assumed ownership of space or the assumption of proprietary rights toward some geographical area with the realization at least for humans they there is no basis for those rights I Public interactional home and body territories 5455 0 Personal space four interaction zones 55 I Intimate distance 016 inches lovemaking and very private coversations I Personal distance 18 in 4 ft friends and acquaintances I Social distance 412 ft business transactions and role relations I Public distance 1225 ft appropriate for public ceremonies speechmaking classroom lectures and so on I Nonperson waiters servants people in crowded elevators the norms of personal space might be invaded but not on purpose by these people Kinesics the study of body movements such as gestures posture and head trunk and limb movements Facial expression and eye gaze sometimes too 56 0 Body movements how we carry our bodies or move them in relationship to others 0 Types of gestures I Emblems gestures that can easily be translated into verbal statements and there is a widespread agreement to what they mean middle finger fuck you I Illustrators accompany speech and emphasize what was said holding your palms up pointing shaking your fists etc I Affect displays emotions are mostly communicated through the face but postural and gestural cues convey how we feel too child throwing a tantrum kicking arms and legs I Regulators nonverbals that help control interaction ow ex Signaling when you want to say something in a conversation I Selfadapters using body movements to manage anxious or emotionally charged situations manipulations of your own body pressing a hand against your mouth chewing nails crossing your arms I Object adapters material objects used in the tension management process smoking tapping a pencil chewing a straw Gaze eyes are messengers themselves not just receivers 57 0 Eyes serve 3 primary functions I Expressive communicate emotions like fear and surprise Can create arousal in those being stared at I Regulate amp monitor others reactions during conversation I Looking gazing in the direction of the other s eyes I Seeing visual contact with the whole person I Seeing gt looking when it comes to regulating and monitoring feedback Facial Expression single most important channel of nonverbal communication 59 0 Universal expressions regardless of culture there are 6 universal basic emotions happiness sadness surprise fear anger and disgust Why Part of what we inherit biologically and communicate spontaneously o Facial blend traces of more than one emotion on someone s face 0 Cultural display rules control when we have to display quotfakequot emotions Act surprised at our surprise party even though someone already spilled the beans 0 Leakage cues unintended signs of our real feelings o Misreading facial expressions is common Artifacts physical appearance and manipulations of that appearance through clothing Culture defines beauty but there are some underlying aspects of body types and proportions that appear to be fairly universal 0 Body types change from availability of food If scarce more plump is seen as attractive 0 Body symmetry the extent to which both sides of the body mirror each other 0 Body proportionality the relative length size or distance between related physical features waisttohip ratio in women 0 Clothing and adornment 63 way to communicate social status group ID and personality Auditory Communication system 0 vocalics or paralanguage what is said is frequently less important than how it is said 0 Vocal Characteristics 0 Vocal qualities loudness pitch in ection tempo rhythm 0 Vocal characterizers laughing crying moaning yelling whining stopped at page 64
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