Survey of World History to 1500- Weeks 1 and 2
Survey of World History to 1500- Weeks 1 and 2 10494
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrington Johnson on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 10494 at Georgia State University taught by Rachel Ernst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 86 views.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Survey of World History to 1500 Weeks 1 and 2 Hominin Evolution and Diaspora These disciplines are only a few ways in which we study human history before the written word: Palynology- Study of ancient pollen granules Philology- Study of ancient languages Sociology- Study of present and past societies - Other disciplines are listed on the Hominin Evolution and Diaspora PowerPoint, which is on Brightspace/D2L. Change is needed in order to survive. Hominin Split- one of primates living in jungle left jungle, walked to edge of grassland and stood up. • Hominin- partial or total bipedal • This was due to the lush jungle shrinking and the lack of food. • Standing on two feet allowed bipedals to see over the tall grasses of their new environment. • These bipedals had the same intelligence as the primates remaining in the jungle, but occupied a new niche. Intense competition spurs evolution Absolute African origin to hominid species Every 3,000-6,000 years there is occasionally a mutation in the DNA Mitochondrial DNA and Oldest Archeological Remains help to pinpoint Africa as origin • Haplogroup(haplotype)- exact same DNA 3.5-1.9 years ago: genus Australopithecus- brain ¼ of ours today • Gracile (Lucy)- skeleton lither than rest of species, fingers more curved (for grabbing branches) • Robust- finger bones straighter, could grasp tools 2..5 million years ago: first of the Homo genus emerges, Homo habilis Stone tools 1.8 million years ago- Homo erectus Characteristics of Homo erectus (refer to Hominin Evolution and Diaspora PowerPoint) • Walk fully upright • Fire • Hunters • Bigger brains • Less mature young- the birth canals of the females remained short, so young had to be nurtured for a longer span than now. • More advanced stone tools- the shape of the tools spoke of a specific purpose the tool was used for. If the tool was sharp, for example, this could mean it was used for hunting game. • First hominin to leave Africa • Vocal cords too compressed for speech like ours- researchers not completely sure if they communicated verbally as clearly as we do today. African Diaspora- dispersal over large area Africa Pump Theory- drier and cooler, desert, people left Why did they go everywhere though? Why did they go so far? Maybe some boat technology (water route) Homo erectus species evolves into archaic Homo sapiens- several different subspecies- Archaic Homo sapiens (20 different species) • Neanderthals- primarily hunters, same structure of arctic fox (cranium), vitamin A, ate a lot of meat, lived in very cold time and hunted very dangerous predators • Cro-Magnon + many more -Brains almost as fully developed as ours -Lacking temporal lobe -Developed more advanced technology for hunting -Cared for sick and elderly- remains have been found showing reset bones in some skeletons. -Buried their dead with care- things like flowers and objects the deceased cherished or had in life were in graves. This regard towards the dead pointed to a probable belief and/or reverence of the afterlife. -Lived in extended family groups, near other extended family groups- big fire pits showed that many of them traveled in large groups. -Many of them were hunters and gatherers. -Grindstones were used to pulverize seeds. -Created and used fish hooks using bone 200,000 years ago-:Homo sapiens sapiens (modern humans) appear in what is now Ethiopia • Larger frontal lobe, which showed that they were capable of abstract/creative thought at this time • Art – paintings in caves have been found; jewelry found as well • Did not differ from the Homo erectus socially i.e. hunting 90,000 years ago: Leave Africa and colonize Australia by 60,000 years ago Migration to the New World? Beringia Landbridge/ Ice-Free Corridor Theory (13,000 + years ago migration from Siberia) Clovis Technology- made in certain way, weapons made for specific purpose People starting to find things predating clovis technology Water-Migration Route (15,000-18,000 years ago migration from Siberia) Polynesian Migration (15,0000-23,000 years ago migration from Polynesian Islands) Bones from Lago Santa Cave and the Botocudo- mitochondrial DNA looks nothing like that of the Russians(Lago Santa Cave) Polynesian DNA haplogroup not present in modern Native American population These findings have led to doubt in previous theories. Agricultural Revolution Agricultural revolution changed everything in regards to diet Diet, health, and mobility affected in Agricultural Revolution People staying in one place- government, religion, economy, big cities The planet became warmer – massive spikes in heat (22 degrees in period of 50 years) • Megafauna becomes extinct; 2 theories • Climate change • Hunted to extinction • Warmer and wetter climate • Glaciers receded to their current position about 12,000 years ago When its warm, groups would rely on plants planted the previous year for food; starts to get cold, follow migration of big animals to hunt, then the cycle starts again. • Simple land management skills (trial and error) • Took years for some to stay in one place Agricultural technologies • Artificial selection- take most ideal plant to reproduce - The intentional selection and reproduction of individuals within a population to produce a desired trait. • Middens- archeological trash heap • Bananas used to be more peel than fruit • Other species selected because they had traits desirable for planting (refer to Agricultural Revolution PowerPoint) - High-yield - Grow quickly, ensuring quick planting-to-harvest turnaround - Self-pollinating - Easily stored for a long time - Shatter-proof seed-casing (single gene mutation) Shatter-proof means that the seeds were not falling everywhere, as is usual with wheat. • Phases- things easy to grow, • Second wave of planting- established villages - Longer time between planting and harvest (about 10 years) Crops that can be grown from a single seed or cutting were what they were focused on planting. Fruit trees- olives, figs, nuts, pomegranates, dates • Almonds naturally have cyanide- one tastes ok and is not bitter - Plant sweeter almond, entire orchard without bitter almonds, but can‟t live in the wild • Third wave of planting- apples, etc. • Irrigation- ditch diverted from river in its earliest form - Early societies just relied on rainfall to water crops - During drier months, dig irrigation ditches or channels from water source to hydrate fields • Problem with salt (makes it hard to grow things for very long periods of time) - Maintaining soil viability is harder • Old world models - Field rotation - Crop rotation- one crop one year, another crop the next year • New world models - Milpas- when you plant multiple crops in one field - Terra preta do Indio- found in Amazon, very fertile soil, created by slash and char (underbrush, bunch of plants and char it, manure, fish, turtles, bits of clay, smashed pottery and clay binds so people could grow massive plots of soil) • Clearing fields • Clear cutting (rare) - Labor-intensive • Slash and burn - Used for planting and for clearing fields for grazing - Makes soil more nutrient-rich - Clears underbrush, making unintentional forest-fires less likely • Animal domestication - “For an animal to be considered „domestic‟, it must have been bred in captivity and be physiologically different from its wild ancestors”- Slide 13 of Agricultural Revolution PowerPoint • Domestication of animals in any area usually comes after the first attempts at planting • Evidence of animal domestication? (refer to Agricultural Revolution PowerPoint) - Smaller brains - Less developed sense-organs - Specific physiology • Certain things are needed for an animal to be domesticated (refer to Agricultural Revolution PowerPoint) - Physiological difference from ancestors - Quick growth rate - Herbivores (few exceptions) - Ability to mate in captivity - Behavioral differences from ancestors - Non-aggressive - Able to be corralled (excludes panicky animals or animals that leap or bounce; eg: gazelle, deer, kangaroo) - Herd/pack animals with a group hierarchy Agricultural River Cultures- rivers that can be diverted to fields and that can flush out salt • Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent • Indus River Valley • Nile Delta • Yellow and Yangtze Rivers - Refer to the Agricultural Revolution PowerPoint for the characteristics of each civilization. Villages, Cities, and City-States Unintentional Results of Agricultural Revolution- - Some plants and animals need humans to survive - Human health- Malnutrition- no longer a variety in food and diet; some people only living on two things, which led to vitamin deficiencies, increased tooth decay, lack of vitamins, too much sugar, lots of cavities; 10% more cavities after Agricultural Revolution - Ecosystem- is changed, different animals would pick it clean; rat, insect, etc. populations increase (vermin) - The landscape is permanently altered (with slashing and burning); salinizing is bad when there is too much Mesopotamia/Fertile Crescent- • Flooding would occasionally be very violent, wiping out entire villages- came from snow melt in mountains to the north Indus River Valley- very hot, tiny city in the shade of cliff with tributary near it- small amount of water but perfect for small population • More people in valley • Subject to unpredictable flooding, Nile Delta- most ideal scenario; Nile flowed very predictably, Egyptian culture flourished for very long time because of this Yellow and Yangtze Rivers- • Yangtze- rice cultivation (first evidence) • Living along one of these valleys was very precarious situation Norte Chico Complex in Peru- recent discovery, 25 cities along several fast-flowing rivers fed by snow-melt in the Andes, maybe bigger than Mesopotamia • Very dry here and care has to be taken with irrigation, so made very deep ditches, able to get rid of salt this way and prevent evaporation The Sahel and the Niger River- Sahara continues to grow- as it continued to grow, fishing and herding communities traveled further to the south • Evidence of massive rivers but Sahara blows right over these things, masking any impressions • Cave in Egypt- pictures on walls, indicating people swimming, herding cattle, and fishing in what is now desert • Desertification started in north and continued down • Settled along the Niger River c. 1500 BCE Kinship Group Rulership- group of male individuals representing families (up to 200 people) on a council • Families had to be small enough for one person to look over them • Respect between everyone within the entire assembly Cities- approximately 5000 people, some have jobs that have nothing to do with agriculture Surplus of food beginning of any stratified civilization Giving up personal freedom and agreeing to live under another‟s rule- when you leave life as a nomad Surplus created jobs- merchants, accountants, military/guard, government/administrators, laborers, construction, etc. First step in establishing social hierarchy City-States- one city and the area around it, may contain multiple villages within it Temple model- a charismatic leader or influential member of a powerful and established kin group, ensure good harvest, good weather (minimal flooding), protection from other villages (through divine intervention and not force), steady trade with local nomads or villages • Chavin de Huantar (1000-200 BCE)- built on top of two rivers, whoever was living in temple was also in charge of trade, flourished for 800 years under a priest, 200 BCE there was a massive earthquake, priest failed and civilization collapsed, people left for other villages • Eridu and Uruk (5500 BCE and 4300 BCE) First Stage Giant temples (among the first), giant storage complexes, manuscripts of tallies, center for commerce, military clashes, in temple society, priest doesn‟t regulate military, aristocratic military people were given power and kingship model was created Kingship Model- ruler usually comes from military background and takes leadership by force or maintain leadership through force • Understood they are beloved by the gods, but this isn‟t how they get power but how they maintain it • Pre-Dynastic Egypt (5200-3100 BCE) - military rulers Craft Production and Trade Model- anomaly; society can support itself on agriculture but there are multiple floods, so they start to trade, merchant leaders, military to protect convoys, rulers are trade guild, could exist but successful society ruled by group yet to exist - Harappan Culture (3000-1500 BCE)- weird, can‟t really explain, all cities look the same and very advanced with indoor plumbing and indoor heating, suddenly disappeared, stuff traveled a lot, lot of houses that are well-off, cities working collaboratively Legendary Xia Dynasty (2852-1766 BCE)- close to modern day Xianan, don‟t know if its legend or not, multiple kings masters of certain things like medicine, multiple cities around Yellow River united under one king (Yu, master of the Yellow River) that was a priest and a king- legend; archaeology- kinship model present, craft and trade model society, no weapons found during this time
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