History 202 Notes for January 4, 2016
History 202 Notes for January 4, 2016 Hist 202-07
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Wenzel on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 202-07 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Roger Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see United States History since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Sunday, May 22, y History 202 Week 1: January 4th & January 6th Reconstructing the Nation 18651877 A. Freedom adopted 1865 a. XIII 13th Amendment: i. Section 1: neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the US, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. ii. Section 2: congress shall have power to B. Many questions regarding freed slaves: "Stood a brief moment" in the sun after amendments passed a. Will they move and where? What work will they do? Own land? School? Citizens? Can they vote? Hold office? Testify in court? Sue whites? Legally equal? Socially equal? b. 180,000 blacks served in the union army ie. Private Louis Martin 1864 i. Civil War African Americans won medal of honor and made contributions during the war effort C. 14th amendment XIV a. All person born in the United States are citizens and the state wherein they reside. D. Two views: a. Freedman's Bureau i. A just and calming of racial tension? A misguided government effort encouraging the shiftless? ii. Significant advances in education for freed slaves ie. Black School, Kentucky 1916 iii. 40% of former enslaved children achieved literacy by 1880s b. Black Legislators during Reconstruction E. Voting Rights a. 15th amendment XV i. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. F. Southern Reluctance a. Political: president Andrew Johnson: Strong opponent of 14th amendment 1 Sunday, May 22, y b. Cultural: millions of people that don't want to see these changes happen. They wanted to maintain slavery a cause which they lost so they can't bring it back, but they CAN secure white supremacy i. "The Lost Cause" (don't want to give up white control even though they lost the battle of having slavery) c. Racial: 1868 Horatio Seymour (D) got 47% of the vote => he had a poster that said "Our motto: this is a white man's country; let white men rule" d. Violence: KKK (formed 1865) best known white supremacy groups wear white masks it makes them scarier and more threatening i. Not necessarily doing anything violent when sending out postcards but it's creating fear e. All combined i. Capitalism ii. White Supremacy iii. Brutality iv. White Only Vote = Time runs out for the rights of many black Americans A. Postcards: hundreds of post cards sent of lynching (illegal killing of people who may or may not have committed crimes. No trial, they are simply killed.) a. Doesn't take a lot of violence to intimidate people but there was a lot of violence used B. Without Sanctuary: collected postcards of the lynchings and it was determined that 4,700 known lynchings happened b/w 18821964 a. Boy wants to send postcard to parent making fun of lynching so that him and parents can have a laugh disgusting and unethnical! b. Jesse Washington, Waco, TX, 1916 slowly burned him and slowly cut off his fingers. After he died, people cut off his limbs and took them home. How are people in the 1950s and 1960s going to stop this? It should not be normal who will stand up to that? c. Despite remarkable efforts, MOST former slaves lived in great poverty, had FEW rights, and were BELITTLED in a whitecontrolled society C. Impeachment Trial of Andrew Johnson, 1868 a. People turn attention to other things after this D. 2012: 39% of Americans had a college degree a. Point: Most people do not get their ideas and perceptions of history from formal education. They get it from family, peers, community and popular culture. i. 13 year old sharecropper Georgia, 1937 2 Sunday, May 22, y E. What if History is racist? a. The Birth of a Nation 1915 the "Titanic" of it's era one of the all time most popular and commercially successful films i. Made during time where there was extreme segregation, no citizenship rights, tells a story that is accurate to that time F. Obama becoming presidentAMAZING The SelfMade Man Theory 18651915 A. "Self Made Man Theory" "Rugged Individualism" *Terms used to describe general principles that "explained" the relative economic status of people a. "Success Ethic" idea that if you come to this country and you accept the bargain (hard work, risk taking, creativity, some qualities that you have) you will have economical material success B. The American Dream is a belief and cultural value: In the United States individuals have the opportunity to become prosperous and successful a. Every citizen shall be able to: 1. Maximize their potential, regardless of the circumstances of their birth 2. According to their individual ability C. What is the obligation of the country to help people realize/achieve their American dream? (The American Dream is NOT a hangout) a. State of California: to bring people to higher education make their prices less costly which will bring more success D. What obligation does the country have to remove obstacles that keep people from the American Dream? a. Poverty b. Lack of access to education, training c. Discrimination (Law, Gender, Race, Religion) d. Geographic Location i. Ex. 2013 York, Ala. 78% black, 38% below poverty line a. SMM theory answered: What explains the growing gap between the wealthy and the poor? i. 2013: 14.5% (45 million people) live in poverty. North Augusta, SC. Anthony Harley unsuccessfully tried to revive his mom in their small hotel room. No money, no insurance. E. 1900: about 40% of the population lived in poverty *precise data not collected a. Why do so fewer people live in poverty today than back then? i. Children are more likely to live in poverty than any other age group 3 Sunday, May 22, y F. According to "self made man" theory the differences in economic success were due entirely to one's personal character and abilities. a. According to this theory, everything held true, we should do nothing for poor people. In the late 1800s and early 1900s there was nothing for them. A lot of it came because you didn't need to help these people because they lacked the motivation. So if you help them, you'll make it worse. 4
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