History 202 Notes for January 6, 2016
History 202 Notes for January 6, 2016 Hist 202-07
Popular in United States History since 1865
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Megan Wenzel on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 202-07 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Roger Hall in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see United States History since 1865 in History at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Sunday, January 31, y History 202 Lecture Reconstruction, Becoming a Global Force: Imperialism, Rugged Individualism *100 Horatio Alger novels told formulaic story of poor american children who, by their initiative, hard work, courage and honesty — rose amor humble backgrounds to attain lives of middle class security and comfort. For SMM (self made man) theory personal character made all the difference Personal Character • Strong work ethic • competitive nature • Intelligence • Persistence • Self sacrifice • Innovative, inventive thinking • Entrepreneurial ideas • High moral character • Economic risktaking • Defer Gratification (put off small for greater success—reinvest time and money) Russel 19001925, gave over 5,000 public lectures titled “Acres of Diamonds” • Conwell said wealth was “everywhere” in America. One just had to look for it and work hard to get i . • POINT: If you did not do well, it was your own fault Examples of Success 1 Sunday, January 31, y • Vanderbilt, JP Morgan, Carnegie, Gould, Rockefeller = all have massive facial hair; key to success? No, they had what it takes. The “Haves” • Adolphus Buschimmigrated to US Beer brewer, Joseph Pultizer immigrated writing/publishing • Andrew Carnegie classic SelfMade Man. 1848 he immigrated to US and was VERY poor. 1848first job as factory worker, 1850: telegram messenger, changed occupations multiple times, many successful investments and built his own steel company. He merged with several companies and in 1901 US Steel worth $1 billion. With the fortune he earned from selling his company, he gave away/donated almost all of it. (Modern example Bill Gates and Melinda Gates, Warren Buffet) By his death in 1919, donated $350 million of personal wealth ($5.2 billion in 2014), remaining was given to charities. Industrialist Henry Ford believed in the success ethic: “Failure is opportunity to begin again” “Poverty is the breeding grounds for success” “Charity is wrong as a cure for poverty” *impoverished people need to help themselves you should not help them* Conversely, individuals who failed to prosper lacked some or all of the positive character traits • Poor personal character: Lazy Unmotivated Simple minded Untalented Foolish *Perhaps: Criminal Drunkard Immoral Factors not considered in the success ethic theory: 2 Sunday, January 31, y • Where one lived (access to jobs, • Gender (discrimination) information) • Race (ism) • Family Background • Religion (discrimination) • Length of time lived in U.S. • Legal (discrimination) Main Points of Self Made Many Theory • Education (opportunities) 3 Sunday, January 31, y Point 1: The Self Made Man theory explained and justified the wealth gap between Americans Point 2: The Self Made Man theory justified why society should not offer public welfare to the needy Point 3: The theory protected capitalism by stating, if there was a problem, it was the fault of the individual, not the system. Point 4: Perception is often more powerful than fact. Obstacles some people could not get around were ignored in theory. • If you remained at the bottom, according to SMM theory, you knew who was to blame. 1911: American life • Average wage: 22 cents/hour ($200$400 annual income) • Dozen eggs cost: 14 cents • Life expectancy (M): 47 years • 95% of births occurred at home • 6% of americans graduated from high school • 8,000 automobiles in country The task of protecting working Americans in the late 19th century from exploitation, abuse, harassment, sickness, injury and death was a long, contentious process, mostly because a majority of employers and public leaders resisted. One result: people injured or killed in preventable workplace accidents United States: 1900 • 35,000 killed on the job/year (95 people a day) Total labor force: 24 million , 1 death for every 685 workers (53 times more deadly) United States: 2013 4 Sunday, January 31, y • 4,405 killed on the job (12 people a day) Total labor force: 159 million , 1 death for every 36,090 workers Troubled working conditions in the age of unregulated rugged individualism 1910 : Clothing manufacturing was, by far, the largest business in NYC— the center of the nation’s clothing industry Nationally, NY produced: 70% women’s clothing and 40% men’s clothing Triangle Shirtwaist Factory: Located: NYC (Manhattan, garment district) 8th, 9th, 10th floors of Asch Building. Employers: Max Blanck & Isaac Harris (Russian Jews who came to NY, early 1890s). Black & Harris began in 1901. Employees: 500 (mostly young, immigrant women not many job opportunities usually) Triangle Waist Co. largest factory of its type, producing 2,000 shirtwaist per day selling for $3 each • Blanck & Harris successful examples of the American Dream wanted to produce cheapest shirtwaist and largest quantity • Rules: 1. Triangle workers had to buy their own materials, including needles and thread and pay for any mistakes they made. 2. They could not talk or sing while working. They were monitored during bathroom breaks. Bags were inspected at end of each shift • Hours: 55 hour, six day weeks. Wages: started at $1.50 week, averaged $6 (11 cents/hour), with a maximum of $12 March 25, 1911 shirtwaist company catches fire on the 8th floor from discarded cigarette, company operator called 10th floor (executive officers) but no one remembered to call 9th floor Fire Drills were recommended not required Blanck and Harris didn’t have them Fire Sprinklers : available but not required and Triangle didn’t have them Doors : not required to open outward and doors at Triangle opened inward. At Triangle, one of the two exit doors on the 9th floor was kept locked to prevent theft 5 Sunday, January 31, y • Elevator operator Joseph Zito made 8 trips and saved over 100 people from 9th floor. Terrified workers disabled the elevator by jumping on the roof, trapping 200 people.[62 people jumped to their deaths, most form 9th floor.]146 dead, 71 injured • Fire and 36 other building codes (fire codes) were created in NYC and this influenced other cities to do the same. Tragedy induced change 1910, Blanck & Harris agreed to compensate the families of each worker, who died with $75. Their insurance company paid Blanck & Harris $400 for each claim (profited from each death). They reopened their business in 1918 but it was not as popular and continued to get in to trouble b/c violating laws. Building still stands fireproof Progressive Reform 18651920 • Welfare: Legal procedure or government policy or social effort designed to promote the basic physical and material wellbeing of people in need. Reform Settlement Houses: privately funded assistance for the poor (modern daycare, education, health care). • ie. Hull House, Chicago by Jane Addams. Popular between 1880s1920s started in England and spread to US. (1913: 413 settlement houses in 32 states) Carnegie : the wealthy should be the main benefactor for the less wealthy: Gospel of Wealth —> Wealth should not be wasted on selfindulgence share your wealth Good Government Movement: 1870s the civic reform of government “watchdogs” of politicians. Deal with Problems: “Political machines” & Corruption. Lack of services provided by government City Beautiful Movement: Inspired by World Columbian Exposition Chicago 1893 >> Creating Order, Beauty, Safety out of Chaos . Examples: Civic Buildings, Open Space, Public Art, Fountains, Public Parks ie. Central Park, NYC 6
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