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Week 10 Notes (PAM 2030 Notes)

by: Eunice

Week 10 Notes (PAM 2030 Notes) PAM 2030

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Intermarriage and Changes Racially (Guest Lecture) Work-Family Balance
Population and Public Policy
Professor Sassler
Class Notes
PAM, population
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eunice on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PAM 2030 at Cornell University taught by Professor Sassler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Population and Public Policy in Political Science at Cornell University.


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Date Created: 04/09/16
PAM 2030 Sassler Spring 2016 April 5, 2016  Interracial Marriage and Changing Racial Boundaries o terms  heterogamy: mating with someone of a different age, education, race, ethnicity, gender, religion  homogamy: opposite of heterogamy  hypergamy: mating with someone of higher social status  hypogamy: mating with someone of lower social status o why intermarry  preferences: values and attitudes  structural opportunities (school, neighborhood, context)  third parties (parents, laws)  Anti-Miscegenation Laws o became unconstitutional in 1967  Loving v. Virginia o penalties included: felony verdict, jailing, fines, voiding of marriage o regions excluded different races  War Brides Act of 1945 o allowed non-Asian spouses and children to come to US o (war brides: wartime marriages between soldiers and foreigners) o racial and ethnic boundaries  bright vs. blurred boundaries  unambiguous  social representation or self identity are unambiguous  boundary crossing  individuals move from one group to another without changing the boundary  boundary blurring  individuals’ locations with respect to boundary are ambiguous o ex. bilingual, multinational  boundary shifting  inclusion/exclusion of groups o likelihood for intermarriage  affected by race, ethnicity, gender, nativity (US or foreign born), education, religion o age homogamy  prevalent: normative constraints, preferences  female hypergamy (males are the older)  reasons: maturity, economics, remarriage o theory  social exchange  prospective partners trade on personal traits on the marriage market  men: income, employment, status, power  women: sex, appearance, expressiveness, assumed domestic skills  “non-white daters gain status by dating any white”  preferences and opportunities  social context can lead to partner choice  social context can lead to a network which can lead to partner choice  intergroup contact  racial attitudes is directly related to degree of intimate contact between members  assimilation  adopt cultural patterns, customs, language of the host/majority population  intermarriage is the last step of assimilation  winnowing  dating leads to cohabiting which leads to marriage (potentially) o increasingly selective in the matching process  heterogeneous relationships will dissolve, homogenous ones will progress to marriage April 7, 2016  iclicker: compositional shifts: accounts for changes in the amount of time US parents spend with children o the rise in maternal employment, increased educational attainment, increased single parenting  Work-Family Balance (or lack thereof) o factors: of increasing female participation in paid labor force (PLF)  occupational factors: nature of jobs have changed  rural to manufacturing to information and service  economic factors:  better wages, educated, more female-headed families  demographic factors  later marriage, fertility decrease, increase in life expectancy  women have fewer children, reduction in time-intensive parenting  high rates of divorce and separation/reductions in alimony o what about the men? % of men in PLF has decreased  population is aging, early retirement of baby boomers  however there is a growing group of non-employed who aren’t in school o attributes of labor force  aging, globally the US isn’t doing so bad  fertility is declining  increased racial diversity  more working women  means that increase proportions of parents are in PLF  change in household roles o changes in who does the reproductive labor (parents need to work, children need to be raised and socialized) o trends  1990: US has the highest LFPR (labor force participation rate) for women  2010: most other economically developed countries’ are higher o policies that are implemented by governments (not the US)  parental leave  the right to part-time work  equal treatment of part-time workers  public childcare expenditures  these four have positive effects on the LFPR but increases gender differences  the US vs. Europe  US: has family and medical act; states that have parental leave generally fund them through disability funds  if Europe’s policies were applied in US: o women’s LFPR would increase o men would share the load more, potentially lowering the wage gap  US women: more likely to have managerial and professional roles o more likely to have leadership roles o unlike Europe with its greater numbers of part-time female workers  US’s issues against these policies o health insurance is private vs. single payer o education is increasingly privately funded o public schools are increasingly privatized o cultural factors:  arguments that Americans value children less now  cultural values attributed from demographic behaviors:  lowered TFR, increased % of women who are childless, later marriage  suggests that self actualization is valued greater than child care  is this true? no o factors: amount of time spent with children  increasing selection into parenthood  cultural change: defining a “good” parents  change in how time is used: housework, leisure, sleep, kids  women spend more time with children now than before  how? schooling o children are more and longer at school o women do less housework o most work part-time


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