Chapter 2 Notes (part 1)
Chapter 2 Notes (part 1) NUTR1213 001
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by pcoliver96 on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NUTR1213 001 at University of Arkansas taught by Jamie Baum in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Education and Teacher Studies at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Nutrition: Chapter 2 Notes part 1 Eating pattern -eating pattern: an individual’s complete dietary intake of foods/beverages over time -a healthy eating pattern is not a rigid diet prescription, but a flexible set of options that can accommodate personal food preferences and seasonal availability -the idea pattern contains primarily foods that supply adequate nutrients, fiber, and calories without an excess of added fats, sugars, sodium, or alcohol [2.1 the ABCs of healthy eating] Diet-planning principles -adequacy: to provide enough of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy (in calorie form) -balance: to avoid overemphasis on any food type or nutrient at the expense of another -calorie control: to supply the amount of energy one needs to maintain a healthy weight – not more, not less -nutrient density: to create a healthy eating pattern that meets nutrient needs and stays within caloric limit -moderation: to avoid excess amounts of unwanted constituents, such as solid fat and sugars -variety: to incorporate a wide selection of different foods from within and among the different food groups rather than eating the same foods day after day Adequacy -the characteristic of a diet that provides all of the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy (calories) in amounts sufficient to maintain health -example: iron deficiency anemia (pg. 30 in book) UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Balance -feature of a diet that provides a number of types of foods in harmony with one another – foods rich in one nutrient don’t crowd out foods that are rich in another nutrient out of the diet -promotes adequacy in the diet -example: foods rich in calcium typically lack iron (or vice vers a) – one has to balance the two in the diet Calorie control -feature of a diet that achieves balance between calories consumed in foods and beverages and calories expended through physical activity -to maintain a healthy weight, energy intakes should not exceed energy needs Nutrient density -measure of the nutrients a food supplies relative to the nu mber of calories it provides – the higher the level of nutrients and the fewer the number of calories, the higher the nutrient density -emphasizes foods that are rich in nutrients (proteins, vitamins, and minerals) but relatively low in calories and added fats and sugars -example: a baked potato is more nutrient dense than French fries because it contains more iron and vitamin C Moderation -attribute of a diet that provides no unwanted constituent in excess -try not to eat meals that don’t contain excessive amounts of any one nutrient -practice moderation by choosing foods that are less nutrient -dense on occasion and regularly choosing the most nutrient-dense foods from all food groups without exceeding overall calorie needs Variety -feature of a diet in which a wide selection of foods from within and among the different food groups are consumed -improves nutrient adequacy -good variety fosters good nutrition UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum [2.2 nutrient recommendations] MEMORIZE -dietary reference intake (DRI): set of values for energy and nutrients – used for planning and assessing diet of healthy people -requirement: minimum amount of a nutrient that will prevent development of deficiency symptoms -estimated average requirement (EAR): amount of nutrients estimated to meet requirements for nutrients in half of the people of a specific age/gender -rec dietary allowance (RDA): average daily amount of nutrients sufficient to meet needs of nearly all healthy people of a specific age/gender -adequate intake: average amount of nutrients that appear adequate for individuals when there isn’t sufficient scientific research to calculate RDA -tolerable upper intake level (UL): max amount of nutrients that are unlikely to pose any risk of adverse health effects to most healthy people -fortification: addition of nutrient(s) to foods – food either didn’t have nutrient(s) or contained an insufficient amount -enrichment: process of adding B vitamins thiamin (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), folic acid, and iron to refined grains and grain products at levels specific by law -estimate energy requirement (EER): average kcal intake predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of defined age, gender, weight, height, and physical active level -acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR): range of intakes for particular energy source (cholesterol, fat, protein) associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients -daily values: amount of fat, protein, cholesterol, fiber, sodium, and other nutrients experts say should make up a healthful diet (used in food labeling, set/governed by FDA) Dietary reference intake (DRI) -devised to help prevent deficiencies and provide a benchmark for people’s nutrient needs -designed for planning and assessing diets of healthy people UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum -separate recommendations are made for different groups of people -age and gender groups (children ages 4-8, adult men and pregnant women) -nutrient standards are based on the latest scientific evidence regarding diet and health by experts selected by the national academy of sciences -differences among individuals and establish a range within which the nutritional needs of virtually all healthy people in a particular age and gender group will be covered -DRIs include: -estimated average requirements (EAR) -recommended dietary allowances (RDA) -adequate intakes (AI) -tolerable upper intake levels (UL) -estimated energy requirements (EER) -acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR) -aim to prevent: -nutrient deficiencies in a population -reduce risk for chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, osteoporosis) -in order to set the DRI, the following need to be taken in consideration: -requirement: how much of that nutrient a healthy person needs to prevent a deficiency -consider the amount needed to reduce risk of a chronic disease -determine amount needed for general public (not everyone requires same amount) -estimated average requirement Estimated average requirement (EAR) EAR: amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the requirement for the nutrient in half of the people of a specific age and gender -used to set the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) -average daily amount of a nutrient that meets the nutrient needs of 97-98% of healthy people of a specific gender/age Adequate intake (AI) -AI: average amount of a nutrient that appears to be adequate for individuals when there’s not sufficient scientific research to calculate an RDA UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Tolerable upper intake level (UL) -UL: max amount of a nutrient that’s unlikely to pose any risk of adverse health effects to most healthy people -the need to set ULs is a result of more and more people using large portions of nutrient supplements and the increasing availability of fortifi ed foods Fortified foods -foods to which nutrients have been added either because they weren’t already present or because they were present in insignificant amounts -foods to which manufacturers have added 10% or more of the daily value for a particular nutrient -examples: margarine with added vitamin A, milk with added vitamin D, certain brands of orange juice with added calcium, breakfast cereals with added nutrients and non-nutrients The DRI for energy and the energy nutrients -estimated energy requirement (EER): -average calorie intake that is predicted to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult of a defined age, gender, weight, height, and level of physical activity, consistent with good health -acceptable macronutrient distribution range (AMDR): -range of intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients -to reduce the risk of chronic disease, the DRI report stresses the need to balance caloric intake with physical activity, recommending total calories to be consumed by individuals of given heights, weights, and genders for each of four different levels of physical activity (sedentary to very active) [2.3 the challenge of dietary guidelines] Challenges of the dietary guidelines -in the US, health authorities are as concerned today about widespread nutrient excess among Americans as they used to be about nutrient deficiencies -Dietary Guidelines for Americans UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum Dietary guidelines for Americans -provide science-based advice to promote health and reduce risk for chronic disease through diet and exercise -emphasize caloric control, variety, moderation, and n utrient density -emphasize exercise/physical activity because it increases energy expenditure and helps maintain a healthy weight -goal of the Dietary Guidelines: -decrease the risk of lifestyle diseases **new guidelines are issued every five years Key recommendations of the dietary guidelines for Americans -balancing calories to manage weight -foods and food components to reduce -foods and nutrients to increase -building healthy eating patterns (table 2.1 in book) Two general themes of the dietary guidelines 1) maintaining calorie balance over time to achieve and maintain a healthy weight 2) consuming more nutrient-dense foods/beverages Three major goals for building healthy eating patterns 1) balance calories with physical activity to manage weight 2) consume more nutrient-dense foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, fat-free and low-fat (1%) milk products, seafood, lean meats poultry, eggs, beans and peas, unsalted nuts, and seeds 3) consume fewer foods with sodium (salt), saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, added sugars, and refined grains Another goal of the dietary guidelines: reduce lifestyle diseases -lifestyle diseases can include: -cancer -heart disease -obesity -diabetes -high blood pressure UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum -stroke -osteoporosis -liver disease Dietary guidelines for Americans 2015 -in February 2015, the 2015 dietary guidelines advisory committee (advisory committee) submitted the scientific report of the 2015 dietary guidelines advisory committee (advisory report) to the secretaries of the US departments of health and human services (HHS) and agriculture (USDA) -the advisory report helps to inform the federal government of the body of scientific evidence on topics related to diet, nutrition, and health – advisory report isn’t the dietary guidelines policy or a draft of the policy (HHS and USDA will jointly release the 2015 Dietary Guidelines later this year) Top things you need to know about the 2015-2020 dietary guidelines for Americans -a lifetime of healthy eating helps to prevent chronic diseases like obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes -healthy eating is one of the most powerful tools to reduce the onset of disease – dietary guidelines recommendations can help make informed choices about eating for an individual and their family. -the path to improving health through nutrition is to follow a healthy eating pattern that’s right for each person – eating patterns are the combination of foods and drinks a person eats over time -remember physical activity! Regular physical activity is one of the most important things individuals can do to improve their health -focus on healthy eating patterns -healthy eating patterns include: -a variety of vegetables: dark green, red and orange, legumes (beans and peas), starchy, and other vegetables -fruits, especially whole fruit -grains, at least half of which are whole grain -fat-free or low-fat dairy – including milk, yogurt, cheese, and/or fortified soy beverages -variety of protein foods, including seafood, lean meats and poultry, eggs, legumes (beans and peas), soy products, nuts, and seeds UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum -oils, including those from plants: canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower – oils also are naturally present in nuts, seeds, seafood, olives, and avocados -healthy eating patterns limit added sugars – less than 10% of daily calories should come from added sugars -healthy eating patterns limit saturated and trans fats – less than 10% of daily calories should come from saturated fats -healthy eating patterns limit sodium – adults and children ages 14 years and over should limit sodium to less than 2,300 mg per day, and children younger than 14 years should consume even less Dietary guidelines: summary -follow a healthy eating pattern across the lifespan -focus on variety, nutrient density, and amount -limit calories from added sugars and saturated fats and reduce sodium intake -shift to healthier food and beverage choices -support healthy eating patterns for all types of individuals UniversityofArkansas FundamentalsofNutrition–NUTR1213001 Baum
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