Ecology Week 3
Ecology Week 3 BIOL-3034
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniella Heussner on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL-3034 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Steets in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Ecology in Biology at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Climate 01/27/2016 Jan 27th Global Climate Equator has a higher angle of incidence with the sun that has a smaller surface area and causes the higher temperatures The polar ends of the earth have a lower angle of incidence with a greater surface area that causes lower temperatures Divider line separates night and day Earths tilts of the axis is constant and that is what causes the seasons. It changes relative to the sun as the earth revolves around. Solstice: sun stays in the “same place” Winter solstice: Antartica 24 hours of darkness. 23.5 degrees south of the north pole 23.5 degrees north of equator is Capricorn is at the bottom layer Cancer is always closer than you think Wind currents Hottest location on earth is at the equator Adiabatic processes causes the hot rising air to cool and condense to rain Air comes down 30 degrees north and south at latitude. Leads to deserts because the air that falls is so dry. Hadley cells of air circulation: big tubes circulating the air At 60 degrees north and south we have more precipitation (temperate rain forests) At 90 degrees north and south at the poles almost no precipitation The solar equator moves north and south throughout the year The intertropical convergence: known by sailors as the doldrums, is the area encircling the earth near the equator where the northeast and southeast trade winds come together. Can see in satellite pictures are white winds Coriolis force occurs because of the rotation of the earth, and causes the wind currents to shift Ocean Currents Temperature of currents influence temperature of nearby land Moist climates come from warm and cool ocean currents Humboldt current (Peru) causes climate change (El Nino) Regional Climate Land near the ocean has more constant temperature thatn land in the middle of continents Adiabatic processes: The less dense the air, the cooler the air is Temperature gradient from earth to space. This results in “zonation” Altitude: temp decreases with altitude Precipitation Maritime/continental effect: The further from the ocean the less rainfall Rain shadow effect: On the windward side of mountains, air must rise. As it rises, it cools due to adiabatic processes. This causes water to condense and to rain on the windward side. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms and is no longer saturated, so it tends to pick up water Climate near the ground: with no vegetation, air at ground level is warmer that air higher up, because of reradiation from the ground. With vegetation, the air is cooler at ground level, because of shading and evaporative cooling. Underground, temperature is less variable. Several meters below the ground, temperature is almost constant (the principle behind heating pumps) Local Climate Aspect( the direction of a slope): o South facing slopes are warmer and drier than north facing slopes in the northern hemisphere Urban Heat Islands: Cities are hotter than surrounding country because: o Re-radiation from concrete, asphalt o Industrial and human activity o Quick overland flow of water eliminates evaporative cooling Lake turnover: the high specific heat of water prevents rapid temperature changes(compared to land). Absolute humidity: the rams of water per cubic meter of air Relative humidity: The absolute humidity of an area divided by the maximum possible humidity Dew point: at the dew point the relative humidity is 100%. The point at which a cloud forms. Applied pressure can cool the air Clouds form on nuclei (aerosols, dust particles) “cloud nuclei” Jan29th Soil Soil: the solid substrate of terrestrial communities resulting from the interaction of weather and biological activities with the underlying geologic formation. Part of lithosphere, biosphere, ecosphere…etc. Everything Soil profile: A characterization of the structure of soil vertically through its various horizons, or layers. Soil horizon: A layer of soil formed at a characteristic depth and distinguished by its physical and chemical properties Major horizons: O, A, B, C, R O: the surface layer consisting of organic matter A: mineral layer with accumulation of organic matter and loss of clay, Fe, Al. Still apart of the topsoil. B: A mineral layer which is depositional and accumulates clay, Fe, and Al. In deserts, the B horizon accumulates calcium carbonate layers known as caliche. C: weathered mineral layer, usually similar in composition to bedrock, below primary rooting zone of most plants. R: bedrock, sand, etc… Micelles: clay and humus form a complex together known as the clay-humus micelle Cation exchange capacity (CEC): ability of a soil particle to attract positively charged ions Having a high CDC is important. Without a high CDC anything planted in that soil will have no nutrients to absorb Soil Formation Abiotic influences: Weathering Erosion or flaking Loess(wind deposit) Till(glacier deposit) Alluvial (river), lacustrine (lake), and marine deposit Biotic influences: Generation of organic matter Creation of pores Burrowing animals cause mixing, decreases layering Root respiration acidifies zone around roots. Weak carbonic acid is produces by plant roots to break down what is around them. Soil Organic Matter: Advantages for Agriculture Organic matter (OM) is necessary for formation of micelles Soils with high OM have a high field capacity, and thus much available water Soils with high OM have high porosity, and tend not to flood badly. OM prevents soils from becoming too compacted OM encourages beneficial insects Soil rich in OM is dark, therefore absorbs light energy and warms the ground in the spring.
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