Biol 2420 Week 4 Notes
Biol 2420 Week 4 Notes BIOl 2420
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aurora Moberly on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOl 2420 at Southern Utah University taught by Dr. Paul Pillitteri in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at Southern Utah University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Central Nervous System - Central Nervous System: Consists of the brain and spinal cord - Afferent (Sensory) Neuron: A neuron that conducts sensory impulses to the brain or spinal cord - Efferent (Motor) Neuron: A neuron that conducts motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord - Interneuron’s: Neurons that are completely incased in the central nervous system - Conveys impulses between motor and sensory neurons - Glial Cells: Nervous tissue cells that function as support for the neurons - Brain Requirements: - O2you have 4-5m before brain damage occurs - Glucose you have 10-15m before brain damage occurs Parts of the Brain - Cerebrum: Right and left hemispheres - Right brain controls the left side of the body and vice versa - Corpus Callosum: Part of the brain where information travels from one side of the brain to the other - Right side of the brain is in charge of creativity and emotion - Left side of the brain is in charge of logical and analytical thinking - Cerebral Cortex (Grey Matter): Neuron cell bodies are located here - White Matter: Neuron’s axons are located here - Basal Nuclei (Grey Matter): Groupings of neuron cell bodies - Occipital Lobe: Processes visual input - Temporal Lobe: Processes auditory input - Parietal Lobe: - Somatosensory Cortex: Processes the sensations of touch, temperature change, pain - Sensory Homunculus: A characteristic of the somatosensory cortex in which certain areas of the cortex are assigned to a specific part of the body - The bigger the area of the cortex dedicated to that part of the body the more sensitive that part of the body is - Posterior Parietal Cortex: Relays sensory input to the motor areas - Parietal Temporal Occipital Association Cortex: Assembles senses from your auditory, visual and somatosensory to form a complete picture - Wernicke’s Area: Processes written and verbal speech; Helps with input and output of speech - Damage to this area causes fluent aphasia which means a person can string random words together that have no meaning - Frontal Lobe: Voluntary motor activity, speech, higher thought - Primary Motor Cortex: Directly controls your skeletal muscles - There are specific areas of the cerebral cortex to control specific skeletal muscles; The bigger the area the more control you have over that muscle - Premotor and Supplemental Motor Cortex: - Premotor is in control of body orientation and posture - Supplemental is in control of complex actions, learned muscular activities - Engrams: Motor programs (muscle memory) that you can implement without conscious thought; Correcting an engram is difficult - Prefrontal Association Cortex: Makes decisions, complex and higher though - Broca’s Area: Physical formation of speech - If someone stutters it’s a problem with this area of the brain - Aphasia: Loss of speech caused by trauma to the Broca’s area - Basal Nuclei: Voluntary motor movements - Tones down or inhibits the many different signals that go out to your skeletal muscles to help have controlled, smooth motor movements - Parkinson’s disease is the result of a loss of these basal nuclei - Thalamus: Sensory and motor signals distribution center, sleep, alertness - Hypothalamus: Homeostasis center; Line between the endocrine and nervous system via the pituitary gland - Limbic System: Behavior (Survival behaviors), Motivation, Emotions, Memory - Memory: - Short Term Memory: First time getting some information, it can last from minutes to hours depending on the information - Long Term Memory: Stuff you remember forever - Hippocampus: Transfers information from short term to long-term memory (process is called consolidation) - Forgetting - If you forget something from short-term memory then it is gone - If you forget something from long term it takes a long time to remember it, called transient - Amnesia - Retrograde amnesia: You forget the past, a piece of long term memory - Can happen due to physical trauma to the brain or emotional trauma - Anterograde: Damage to the hippocampus; Cannot consolidate short term memory to long term memory - Cerebellum: Coordinating movements in complex actions and balance in those movements 1. Primary motor cortex sends signals to the cerebellum of what we want to do 2. Skeletal muscles send signals back to the cerebellum of what we are actually doing 3. The cerebellum reads this information and corrects any incorrect movements -Brain Stem: Regulates the most basic functions of the body like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure - Brain dead is when the brain stem still works but the rest of the brain does not -Spinal Cord 1. Dorsal Roots carry sensory information to the spinal cord via afferent neurons - Dorsal Root Ganglion: Cluster of nerve cell bodies in spinal cord 2. Interneuron’s in the spinal cord send the information from the dorsal root to the ventral root 3.Ventral Root carries motor information to the body to respond to the stimulus via efferent neurons Peripheral Nervous System: Afferent Division - Peripheral Nervous System: Controls all nerves that are not in the brain or spinal cord - Afferent (Sensory) Division: Sensory info going into the central nervous system - Two pathways: Somatic Afferent Pathways, Visceral Afferent Pathways - Somatic Afferent Pathways: Relays sensory information coming from outside the body like smell and touch; Conscious of these sensations - Visceral Afferent Pathways: Relays sensory information about changes going on inside the body like organs and blood pressure; Not conscious of these sensations unless it is visceral pain (ex. hunger) - Receptors: Receptor cells neurons job is to change their receptor potential (same as membrane potential) - Fire off in response to other stimuli like temp change, touch - Have different modalities; every receptor cell is designed to respond to one type of stimulus -Types of Receptors: - Mechanoreceptors: Respond to mechanical deformation, which means if the cell membrane is moved it will cause that cell to fire off, use of mechanically gated channels - Thermoreceptors: Respond to changes in temperature - Nociceptors: Pain receptors; Fire off in response to certain chemicals - Photoreceptors: Respond to changes in light - Chemoreceptors: Respond to certain chemicals for example taste buds - Osmoreceptors: Responds to the concentrations in your body - Baroreceptors: Detect pressure, found in your blood vessels - Properties/Characteristics of Receptors: - Sensory Interpretation: Brain receives an action potential, depending on which receptor it goes to it will go to a certain section of the brain so it can distinguish between stimuli - Intensity: - Frequency Coding: As the senses increase the frequency increases - Population Coding: The more signals sending info about a stimulus the greater the intensity of that signal - Acuity: Your ability to discriminate between multiple stimuli; How sensitive you are to different stimuli - The bigger your receptive fields the less acuity you have, the smaller your receptive fields the more acuity you have - Lateral Inhibition: The stimuli that is sending out the strongest stimulus inhibits the adjacent receptors - Law of Specific Nerve Energies: Each sensory receptor organ and its nerve fiber receive and transmit just one modality of sensation regardless of how it is stimulated; Each type of sensation depends on which part of the brain the signal is sent to - Projection: Ability to know where that receptor is - Phantom Limb Pain: Occurs when the brain is still projecting on that limb that is no longer there - Adaptation: If you are receiving a constant stimulus, the receptor will adapt and stop firing off - Tonic: Stops slowly, nonciceptors - Phasic: Stops quickly, mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors - Pain: - Nociceptors: - When they are mechanical or thermal they contain fast fibers that result in a sharp discrete pain, myelinated neurons - When they are polymodal they contain slow fibers that result in an ache/dull pain, non-myelinated neurons - Chemicals involved: - Prostaglandins: Occurs when there is cell damage, function in inflammation, aspirin inhibits production of prostaglandins, released immediately - Bradykinis: Released from damaged cells, released for a long time afterwards, help vasodilator your blood cells, not targeted as much with medications - Substance P: The neurotransmitter released by the nociceptor - Glutamate: Afferent pathway uses glutamate as neurotransmitter in the CNS to get the signal to the brain - Endogenous opiate: Inhibits the nonciceptors firing off - Visceral Pain: - Visceral nociceptors synapse with somatic afferent pathways - Pain is felt (projected) at the location of the afferent receptor Peripheral Nervous System: Efferent Division - Efferent (Motor) Division: Information coming from the brain or spinal cord and going towards effectors (ex. muscles, glands) - Two systems: Somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System - Somatic Nervous System: Neurons that innervate your skeletal muscles; Voluntary movement - Motor Neurons innervate skeletal muscle cells and release the neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (Ach) - Receptors on Muscle Cells: - Cholinergic Receptors: Binds to acetylcholine - Ionotropic Receptors: When acetylcholine binds to these receptors the ion channels are opened - Metabotropic Receptors: When acetylcholine binds to these receptors they work through a second messenger system and cause a series of metabolic reactions in the cell - Nicotinic Receptors: Function via ionotropic receptors, they are always excitatory and are found on skeletal muscle cells - Muscarinic Receptors: Function via metabotropic receptors and can be excitatory or inhibitory - Somatic Control: 3 Levels of motor function: 1. Cord Reflexes: Reflexes from your spinal cord that are automatic (ex. patellar reflex) 2. Brain Stem Functions: Motor functions that keep your heart rate, breathing, blood pressure functioning 3. Voluntary Movement: Movement in your skeletal muscles that you choose to do - All three begin with some sort of sensory input - Autonomic Nervous System: Neurons that innervate your internal organs; Involuntary movement - Sympathetic Division: Fight or flight response - Parasympathetic Division: Rest and digest response
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