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January 27th Notes, Information for Quiz #2

by: Emma Notetaker

January 27th Notes, Information for Quiz #2 KIN 155

Marketplace > University of Miami > Kinesiology > KIN 155 > January 27th Notes Information for Quiz 2
Emma Notetaker
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About this Document

These notes cover what is going to be on Quiz #2.
Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health
Anthony Musto
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Notetaker on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to KIN 155 at University of Miami taught by Anthony Musto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Biological Bases for Physical Activity and Health in Kinesiology at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 01/30/16
KIN155 Quiz 2 January 27, 2016 January 27, 2016  The human genome is programmed FOR physical activity o “The vigorous, the healthy and the happy survive and multiply” – Darwin  Evolution of Physical Activity o Early humans could not have survived without the ability to perform very demanding physical work o All of the adaptations to physical activity improve performance and thus increased chance of survival  All adaptations occur to make us more efficient so we can do more physical work and to make us perform  Makes heart more efficient, allows us to do more work, also helps us live longer  Ex) Captain Caveman  Cardiovascular system  Improved transport of O2 rich blood to the tissue  Muscles  Growth and improved metabolism at the cell  Nervous system and brain  Improved coordination  Improved cognitive function and memory  Stone Age Activity o Article – natural balance o Walking (cardio)  Gathering, hunting, visit other communities o Running (cardio)  Chasing wounded prey o Dancing (cardio)  Entertainment, rituals o Carrying (resistance training)  Children, game meat, firewood o Lifting (resistance training)  Game carcasses, walls for shelter o Digging (resistance training)  Roots, holes  Hunting and gathering  domestication of animals (learned how to farm, grow own food, etc. – took out PA and increased energy input)  industrial revolution (automated transportation – no longer had to walk, machines that produced things – people didn’t have to, processed foods, etc. – energy intake up, output KIN155 Quiz 2 January 27, 2016 down  technology revolution (video games, computers, smart phones) o Brains developed – we got more efficiency, but we removed activity that we need  DNA didn’t change at same rate  Physical activity o 1909-1970 – industrialization, transportation and labor saving devices reduced activity  (Relatively stable) o 1970-2009 – sedentary recreation (internet, video games), spectator entertainment  (Lower cost, high energy foods, supersizing, convenience foods)  Differences in Energy Expenditure o Hunter/Gatherer  Avg – 126 lbs  9.9 kcal/lb/day burned – PA related EE  1247 kcal/day burned – PA related EE  11-13 miles of “walking” o Today’s Man/Woman  Avg – 141 lbs  3.9 kcal/lb/day burned  550 kcal/day burned  4-6 miles of “walking”  Changes in Daily PA = decreased daily EE o Late stone-agers were smaller but much more muscular o Today’s daily EE is 65% that of late stone-agers  When adjusting for body size, current daily EE is 38% that of late stone-agers o Current guidelines for health are require only 44% the daily EE of contemporary hunter/gatherer societies  Hunter Gatherer Populations were: o Faster (speeds similar to Usain Bolt) o VO2 max comparable to modern day athletes o 20% stronger than modern day athletes o Skeletons similar to modern day athletes o Lower waist circumference and body-fat %  Evolutionary Paradox o Quest for efficiency has removed need for physical activity  Mechanisms of Survival o Thrifty gene hypothesis  “Allows hunters/gatherer’s to efficiently store excess energy and better survive through periods of famine and food scarcity” KIN155 Quiz 2 January 27, 2016 o What are the outcomes of:  Feasting  Excess calories stores in body fat – stores energy for later  Insulin levels shoot up when you get lots of energy at once – “don’t burn body fat, we can save it for later”  Fasting  Utilizes stored energy  Muscle atrophy  Physical Inactivity Epidemiology o Genetic core (20%-40%) – 20-40% of how active you are is determined by genetics o Host (the person) – slightly higher – personality – what motivates them, what they like, dislike, their interests, what makes them active o Environment (higher) o Highest (have changed most over time):  Biological – gender, age, disease status, etc.  Social – resources, attitudes, support, socioeconomic status, etc.  Physical – natural and built environments – ex) snow on ground  Change the paradigm: o Exercise is good for you vs. inactivity can kill you


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