World Civ 1 Honors
World Civ 1 Honors HIST 1110
University of Memphis
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1110 at University of Memphis taught by ramsey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World Civilization I Honors in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chapter 1 World Civilization: Ancient Mesopotamia *Between the rivers* - Tigris and Euphrates - contemporary Iraq - “fertile crescent” The Wealth of the Rivers - nutrient rich silt - key: irrigation - coordinated efforts crucial - growth of local government - development of “city-states” - Sumer: small scale irrigation around 6000 BCE - by 5000 BCE, complex irrigation systems Sumerian City-States - cities appear around 4000 BCE - dominant region from 3200-2350 BCE - Ur (Home of Abraham), Ninevah - ziggurat: temple complex (home of the Gods) - divine mandate to kings, once office switches from one appointment (council of elders) to one of inheritance - regulation of trade - defense from nomadic marauders (city walls) Political Decline of Sumer - semetic people from northern Mesopotamia began to overshadow Sumer - Sargon of Akkad (2370-2315 BCE) - destroyed Sumerian city-states and created an empire - unable to surprise rebellion - Hammurabi (1792-1750 BCE) - improved taxation, legislation (code) - used local government to maintain control - empire later destroyed by Hittites from Anatolia (1595 BCE) Legal System - The Code of Hammurabi - 282 items - Lex Talionis (Item #192: “an eye for an eye”) - social status and gender mitigate punishment - women viewed a male property (father, husband, or son), but had some rights (of person from assault) Later Mesopotamian Empires - weakening of central rule invitation to invaders - Assyrians use new weaponry - beginning 1300 BCE, by late 8th-7th c. BCE, they control Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine, and most of Egypt - Nebuchadnezzer (r. 605-562 BCE) takes advantage of internal dissent to take control and create Chaldean Empire - luxurious (i.e. hanging Gardens of Babylon) Technological Developments - bronze (copper & tin) c (4000 BCE) - military and agricultural uses - Iron c, 1000 BCE - cheaper than bronze, not an alloy - introduced as a result of Indo-European migration - wheels, boats (c. 3500 BCE) - Indo-European (Hittites) developed spoked wheels and horse-drawn chariots - ship building and trade Patriarchal Society - men as landowners, relationship to status - patriarchy: “rule of the father” - right to sell wives and children - double standard of sexual morality - women drowned for adultery - relaxed sexual mores for men - some possibilities for social mobility for women - court advisers, temple priestesses (and prostitues), economic activity (marketplace) - introduction of the veil (c. 1500 BCE) Development of Writing - Sumerian writing systems from 3500 BCE - pictographs - Cunieform: “wedge shaped” - preservation of documents on clay - declines form 400 BCE with spread of Greek alphabetic script Uses of Writing - trade - astronomy - mathematics - agricultural applications (geometry) - calculation of time - 12- month year - 24- hour day, 60- minute hour Mesopotamian Literature - Epic of Gilgamesh, compiled after 2000 BCE - heroic saga; king Gilgamesh and his friend, Enkidu - search for meaning of life, especially the afterlife, after the death of Enkidu - flood narrative of Utnapishtim (story of Noah) - this wordy emphasis; immortality only for the gods. Fame and “civilization” the rewards of men’s labor (immorality in a different sense) The Early Hebrews - patriarchs from Babylon, c. 11850 BCE - parallels between early biblical texts, code from Hammurabi - early settlement of Canaan (Israel) c. 1300 BCE - biblical texts: slavery in Egypt, divine redemption - Herabic development of monotheism - ongoing conflict with indigenous populations under King David (1000-970 BCE) and Solomon (970-930 BCE) Moses and Monotheism - Hebrews originally shared polytheistic beliefs of other Mesopotamian civilizations - Moses introduces monotheism, beliefsin a single God - denies existence of competing parallel dieties - personal God: reward and punishment for conformity with revealed law (Leviticus) - Religious authority based on readings of the Torah (“the teachings”): five books, pentateuch (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy)- book of Moses Foreign Conquests of Israel - Civil War (of Solomon) - northern tribes: Israel - southern: Judah - Assyrian conquest: 722 BCE - exiles Israel: ten “lost tribes” - Babylonian conquest 586 BCE - additional exile of many residents of Judah - returned later than a century by the Persians (Cyrus’s conquest of Babylon) The Phoenicians - city state along the Mediterranean coast after 3000 BCE - extensive maritime trade (between Egypt, Greece, and Mesopotamia) - dominated Mediterranean trade, 1200-800 BCE - development of alphabetic symbols - simpler alternative to pictographic cunieform; 22 phonetic symbols (22 consonants); Greeks added vowels (further adapted by Romans for Latin alphabet) - aided spread of literacy in ancient world Indo-European Migrations - common roots of many languages in Europe, southwest Asia (Persia), and India - implies influence of a single Indo-European people - probable origin: contemporary Ukraine and Russia, 4500-2500 BCE - domestication of horses, development of chariot warfare, and use of iron allowed them to spread widely Implications of Indo-European Migration - Hittites migrate to central Anatolia, c. 1900 BCE, later dominate Babylonia - influence on trade - horses, with chariots and spoked wheels - iron - migrations to western China, Greece, Italy significant (for Turkish and European peoples) - influence on language and culture - aryo, sanskrit word (“noble” or “lord”) - aryian, iranian, irish - caste system in India
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