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CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 2 Notes

by: Amy Notetaker

CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 2 Notes Chem 1030

Marketplace > Auburn University > Chemistry > Chem 1030 > CHEM 1030 Cagg Chapter 2 Notes
Amy Notetaker
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These are book and lecture notes from Dr.Cagg's class. The material from sections 2.1-2.4 will not be heavily emphasized on the test, but you can still look over it for your knowledge. The stuff fr...
Fundamental Chemistry I
Brett A Cagg
Class Notes
Cagg, CHEM 1030
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1030 at Auburn University taught by Brett A Cagg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry I in Chemistry at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Lecture / Book Notes: Chapter 2 (1/25/2016) CHEM 1030 Cagg Highlighted: Vocab ----- Highlighted: People ----- Highlighted: Formula/Numbers The first test WILL NOT heavily emphasize sections 2.1-2.4, so you can skim through them. It WILL heavily emphasize 2.5-2.7!!! Section 2.1 v Atoms • Atoms: are the building blocks and smallest units of matter - The philosopher, Democritus was the first to propose this idea - An English scientist and school teacher, John Dalton, was the first to agree/formalize with the idea of matter having atoms - Atoms are made up of tiny subatomic particles • Element: contain a unique form of the same atom (each element has a different form of atoms), which cannot be divided into 2 or more simpler substances - Example: oxygen, nitrogen, iron, sulfur Section 2.2 v Discovery of electrons • Radiation: is the transmission of energy in the form of waves • Cathode ray tube: also known as the electron beam, is a glass tube with metal plates on each end, which has all air, sucked out from it. This device detects electrons using radiation. • Cathode: is a negatively charged plate within the cathode ray which produces radioactive waves called cathode rays • Anode: is a positively charged plate within the cathode ray • Columb’s law: like charges push against one another and opposite charges come towards one another - Example: magnets • The rays in a cathode ray tube, are a stream of negative particles (electrons), which was discovered by the English physicist J.J. Thomson - Thompson determined the charge-to-mass ratio of the electrons as ▯ 1.76 × 10 Columbs per gram • R.A. Millikan who was an American physicist, determined the charge of an electron by examining the motion of oil drops • The mass of an electron is 9.10 × 10 ▯▯▯g v Radioactivity • Wilhelm Rontgen, a German physicist discovered X-rays. • X-rays: rays that are able to penetrate matter and cause materials to give off a fluoresce light. They do no have charged particles due to them not being deflected by anything. - X-rays are only produced when exposed to cathode rays • Antoine Becquerel, a French physicist discovered radiation • Radioactivity: a spontaneous emission of rays that are highly energetic and cannot be deflected due to anything. There are 3 types of radioactive emissions: - Alpha α rays: have positively charged particles, which are called alpha particles. These are deflected away from a positively charged plate. - Beta β rays: have negatively charged particles called beta particles (also known as electrons). These are deflected away from negatively charged plates. - Gamma y rays: these have no charge v Proton and the nuclear model of the atom • The plum pudding model: an idea proposed by Thomson saying that electrons were embedded into the atom like “raisins in a scoop of rum ice cream”; it was the accepted theory for quite a while. • Ernest Rutherford, a student of Thomson’s and a physicist, claimed that atoms were mostly empty space, he also said the atom had a very dense core called the nucleus, with positive particles (protons) in it. • An atomic radius is about 100 pm in radius ▯▯ • The radius of the atom’s nucleus is 5 × 10 pm • Protons and neutrons are located INSIDE of the nucleus, and the electrons are located AROUND the nucleus. v The neutron • James Chadwick, an English physicist discovered the neutrons (which are neutral particles) in the nucleus Section 2.3 v Atomic number, mass number, and isotopes • The atomic number: the number that defines the element, it also represents the number of protons that are in the nucleus of that atom. - Example: Carbon’s atomic number is 6, so a carbon atom has 6 protons in its nucleus - Note that the number of protons can NEVER change, or it will change the element, so if you added one more proton to carbon, it would then have 7 protons and become nitrogen. • The atomic mass number: the total number of protons and neutrons that are in the nucleus of an element’s atom. • The nucleus usually contains has the same amount of protons as it does neutrons, so carbon has 6 protons, and 6 neutrons; however, this is not the case with isotopes. • Isotopes: are atoms which have the same atomic number, but different atomic mass, (the number of neutrons is different from the number of protons). • To find the protons of an element, look at the atomic number • To find the neutrons of an element, subtract the atomic number from the atomic mass. • To find the electron of an element, look at the atomic number, there is the same amount of protons as there are neutrons. Section 2.4 v Nuclear Stability • The nucleus has most of the atom’s mass, but it’s a small part of an atom’s total volume. • The highest known density of an element is 22.6 g/cm , which is for iridium. • The stability of an atom’s nucleus is determined by the difference between coulombic repulsion and short range attraction. Section 2.5 v Average atomic mass • Atomic mass: the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu) • You calculate average atomic mass (deals with isotopes) by this formula: ((normal mass) x (natural abundance of normal x 100)) + ((isotope mass) x (natural abundance of isotope x 100)) - To calculate the average atomic mass of carbon 12 and carbon 13 you would do: ((12.00000 amu) x (98.93 x 100)) + ((13.003355 amu) x (1.107 x 100)) = 12.01 amu Section 2.6 v The periodic table • The periodic table: consists of 118 elements that are grouped according to their physical and chemical properties. • The elements are arranged into periods (horizontal) and groups/families (vertical). • Metals: good conductors of heat and electricity • Nonmetals: bad conductors of heat and electricity • Metalloid: in between metal and nonmetal properties (they are okay conductors of heat and electricity). • Group 1A: the alkali metals (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and Fr) • Group 2A: the alkaline earth metals (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) • Group 6A: the chalcogens (O, S, Se, Te, and Po) • Group 7A: the halogens (F, Cl, Br, I, and At) • Group 8A: the noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn) • Groups 1B, 3B-8B: transition elements/transition metals Section 2.7 v The mole • Mole: unit of measurement that shows the quantity in any substance that has the same number of particles (atoms) found in 12.000 grams of carbon 12. It is like a dozen (12) or a gross (144). • Avogadro’s number: the number of atoms in 12.000 grams of carbon 12 ▯▯ (6.022 x 10 ) v Molar mass • Molar mass: the mass in grams of one mole of a substance. • Molar mass and Avogadro’s number can be used to convert to and from mass, moles, and number of atoms.


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