World Civ 2
University of Memphis
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Beyer on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1120 at University of Memphis taught by White in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see World Civilization II in History at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
World Civilization 2 Week 1 Notes European Civilization in 1450 and how it changed -Europe in 1450 was emerging from the Middle Ages and was poor, illiterate, and divided. - Life expectancy was about 35 years. -1/4 of all infants die in ﬁrst year - 90% of all people are peasants or serfs living in hovels in rural areas and never more than a few miles their entire lives - sharp social and economic inequalities with 95% of wealth and land controlled by only 1% of the population - Black Death in 1347-1350 killed a third of all people - massive population increase cause economic demands for more resources - existing feudal powers based on hereditary rights of aristocracy became under assault *sudden changes in Europe occurred in 1452-1453* - Portugal establishes the 1st modern nation-state in Europe - end of 100 years war between England and France - Constantinople falls to the Ottoman Turks - invention of the Guttenberg printing press Technology -gun powder, artillery, engineering, shipbuilding, navigation are all developed with new information used - mass distribution over international boundaries by the use of the Guttenberg printing press - literacy, crafts, experts in professional skills grow rapidly Economy - trade and ﬁnances become international, requiring new centers of trade, ﬁnance, manufacturing, and learning - towns and cities grow rapidly - the new professional and middle classes are based on ability and merit and grown rapidly - aristocracy and feudalism based on hereditary “birth right” decile - ex. knights and warriors give way to soldiers and specialists Religion - rules need new support of loyalty other than hereditary “birth right” of aristocracy - require church to legitimize their power by “divine” right - church structure and state support become increasingly linked Political Structure - monarchs require religion, trade, and technology to remain in power - sovereignty - against threats from within their lands and from foreign competitors - they cannot rely on feudal organizations or hereditary rights, but on the new professional and middle classes that live in cities and ports - monarchs and churches mobilize and coordinate wealth and power ton bind lands and peoples together - result is the shared interests and cultural governed by a professional bureaucracy of specialists selected by merit
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