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History of South Africa (HIS 355) Part 1

by: Jenifer

History of South Africa (HIS 355) Part 1 HIS 355

Marketplace > University of Kentucky > History > HIS 355 > History of South Africa HIS 355 Part 1
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About this Document

The notes for the lectures up to week three
Re-imagining the History of South Africa
Dr Stephen Davis
Class Notes
South Africa; History of South Africa; HIS 355




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jenifer on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 355 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr Stephen Davis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Re-imagining the History of South Africa in History at University of Kentucky.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Re­Imagining the History of South Africa ­ HIS 355 ­ Notes up to Week Three    Introduction to South Africa:    Words and meanings:    ­ San: A hunter/gatherer community   ­ Khoikhoi: Herders who split off from the San; also known as the Khoi  ­ Khoisan: A reference term in some textbooks relating to both groups  ­ Bantu Speaking people: A group from the area of tropical Africa into Eastern and South  Africa; is an umbrella category  ­ Polygamy: Where, in a community, one person has multiple spouses  ­ Polygyny: Where, in a community, a man is permitted to have multiple wives  ­ Kraal: A type of fence built to keep cattle protected from potential predators; cattle  considered to be a symbol of wealth and the center of the homestead  ­ Widow inheritance: Where the widow is reabsorbed into her deceased husband’s family  by marrying one of his brothers  ­ Bridewealth: The payment made to the wife’s family to gain recognition that she’d joined  his family  ­ VOC: Dutch East India Company  ­ Knecht: Lower level employees of the VOC; had status of indentured servants  ­ Freeburgher: Term for employees of VOC after their contract ended  ­ Manumission: Freedom of slaves from their masters  ­ Commando: A VOC militia group that went on raids to get vengeance against the Khoi  for stealing their cattle  ­ Hottentot: Setters’ word for the Khoi; savage  ­ Bushmen: Another term for the San  ­ African: Term for the Bantu speaking people  ­ Kaffir: Racist (illegal term); cultural/religious marker related to the Xhosa and Bantu  speaking people; Arab origin to mean an individual who didn’t follow Islam  ­ Native: Negative association of indigenous/local groups by the British to separate  themselves from them  ­ Colored: Cultural connotations at first; identification with certain black cultures in the  Cape; after 1948 the Apartheid used this as a categorization of race  ­ Apartheid: A government regime focused on racial segregation  ­ Voortrekker: Pioneer  ­ Griqua: Mixed descendants of the Khoi and Trekboers; Khoi language origin    Polygyny fact sheet:    ­ Wives had separate roles and usually kept separate from each other  ­ Head of the household had his own quarters away from his wives  ­ Wives had almost equal status among each other, except for the first wife  ­ All children in the family considered every wife to equally be their mother  ­ Polygyny occurred where land was plentiful and labor scarce  ­ Land was allocated to the wife to farm for resources  ­ Authority in the household was held with the ownership of cattle; ability to marry was  also held by cattle  ­ Bridewealth kept an agreement between the husband and his wife’s family; could be  forfeited upon divorce        European Occupation of South Africa:        Dutch colonization of the Cape    ­ Portuguese found the Peninsula in 1497, although they were driven off by the Khoi when  they tried to steal their cattle  ­ Jan van Riebeeck founded a settlement in Table Bay in 1652  ­ Dutch East India Company (VOC) took control of the settlement   ­ Freeburghers struck out on their own after leaving the VOC; had conflicts with the Khoi  ­ First shipment of slaves to the Cape was in 1658, with fairly small numbers (dozens)  ­ Khoi contracted illness upon contact with Europeans  ­ Islamic insurgencies in Indonesia provided a reason to bring them to Cape Town as  slaves, which increased the amount shipped there  ­ Slaves had lighter labor compared to sugar cane plantations in South America    Eighteenth Century in the Cape:    ­ VOC became dependent on slave labor  ­ Attitudes, and laws, hardened against race  ­ Attitudes of settlers changed to regard labor as beneath them (whites); considered a  slave task  ­ Manumission became harder to obtain, even for those with caucasian parentage  ­ Artisans worked extra to purchase freedom, and were allowed to gain an income outside  of their regular duties as slaves; artisans were a minority  ­ Children of slave owners had uncertain status; it depended on their master; became  rarer to free them during this time as slavery became more prominent  ­ VOC had no ambitions for a permanent colony; preferred a stock station for their ships  sailing to the East Indies  ­ South Africa was occupied by both the VOC and the British, but eventually became a  part of the British empire until 1960s, to prevent it from falling into French hands        Caste Society:    ­ Khoi and slaves considered to be on the lower rungs of the social ladder  ­ Enforced Khoi to make working contracts with farmers, which favored the latter  ­ The mixed­race population made the rigidity of racism take longer to develop  ­ Apartheid made these divisions more strict  ­ Gender ratios were skewed with more European male than females    Dutch East India Company:    ­ Khoi relationship was considered valuable for gaining supplies  ­ Limited relations between freeburghers, Khoi and VOC  ­ They had no desire for a colonist intermediary during trade  ­ Developed corrupt politics; lost control of colonies when settlers moved further from  Cape Town  ­ VOC was drawn into conflicts; Khoi lost land to the settlers  ­ VOC and Xhosa gave Khoi less room; they couldn’t survive in the desert  ­ Khoi raids of colonist cattle drew in the attention of VOC commando intervention  ­ Commando made no real inquiry into the theft, which caused more conflict  ­ Khoi lost more land and people to the colony; leaders had no more followers and cattle;  forced to join the colony to survive    Missionaries in South Africa:    ­ Smallpox epidemic took its toll on Khoi in 1713  ­ Mission station opened in 1737 and allowed Khoi refuge from VOC  ­ Genadendal; aimed to convert Khoi to Christianity  ­ Was a feudalistic state with its own swatch of land; had full autonomy    British takeover of South Africa:    ­ VOC had deteriorated by the time Britain took over  ­ Trekboers went out into the frontier to escape new British policies about their abolition of  slavery in 1833; this threatened the trekboers’ economy  ­ Trekboers were looked down on by the British  ­ Britain attempted to control the frontier with newer policies  ­ Trekboers were worried about losing land to British control  ­ British missionaries arrived in South Africa in the early nineteenth century  ­ Missionary groups were encouraged; London Missionary Society’ plan for South Africa  was headed by John Philip  ­ Trekboers were against his advocacy for conversion of the Khoi and any of their slave  labor  ­ Calvinists were against the British Evangelicals  ­ Trekboers entered the territory outside of the colony’s influence and into vacated Zulu  lands  ­ Battle of Blood River was the beginning of the Covenant Vow story; conflict between  Zulu and Voortrekkers  ­ Afrikaner nationality rose up in the late nineteenth century  ­ Nationalist academics coined the word Afrikaner to refer to the Trekboers/Voortrekkers a  century after the Blood River battle occurred    South African regions in 1860:    ­ Cape Colony  ­ Orange Free State  ­ Transvaal  ­ Kaffria; Bantuland       


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