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## Chem 14A

by: Annita Kasabyan

22

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2

# Chem 14A CHEM 14B

Annita Kasabyan
UCLA
GPA 3.577

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Notes on Fundamentals
COURSE
Chemistry
PROF.
L. Lavelle
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
2
WORDS
CONCEPTS
Chemistry
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Chemistry

This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annita Kasabyan on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 14B at University of California - Los Angeles taught by L. Lavelle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Chemistry in Chemistry at University of California - Los Angeles.

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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chem 14A 9/23/15  Empirical and Molecular Formulas  Molecular compounds: molecules with atoms held together by covalent bonds.  Empirical formula: relative number of atoms.  Molecular formula: actual number of atoms.      Law of Conservation of Mass (Lovoisier 1789)  Total mass before = total mass after  Balancing Chemical Equations  Number in front of reactant or product = stoichiometric coefficient   Δ means a reaction is being heated   Combustion reactions  Limiting Reactant Calculations  Solving a stoichiometric problem  Identify reactants and products  Write and balance equation for rxn  Calculate molar mass for each R and P  Convert molar mass to moles  Compare calculated moles (step 4) to required moles (step 2) to determine if there’s a  limiting reactant  Based on moles of limiting reactant, calculate moles of product that can form  Convert moles of P to grams  this is theoretical yield  % yield = actual yield/theoretical yield   Molarity and Dilution of a Solution  Molarity (M) = moles (n) / volume (V) = mol ∙ L   ­1  When diluting, moles of solute stay the same.  n=nioriMVi=MVi i i 10/6/15  J.J. Thomson  Discovered the electron in 1897  Measured the value of e/m  (the ratio of the magnitude of the electron’s charge to its  mass)  (1.602x10  C)/(9.109x10  kg) ­31  Atomic number, Z  Frequency: number of cycles per second (Hz)  Frequency of electromagnetic radiation that we see as visible light is 10 Hz 15   Amplitude = height of wavelength above the center line  Intensity = the square of the amplitude  Wavelength, λ, is the peak­to­peak distance of a wave.  Wavelength of visible light ranges from 700 nm (red light) to 400 nm (violet light)  λυ=c  When the light emitted by excited hydrogen atoms is passed through a prism, the radiation is  found to consist of a number of components, or spectral lines  υ =  R {1/n 11/n }22 15  R  = Rydberg constant (3.29x10  Hz)  Balmer Series is the set of lines with n =21  Lyman series is the set of lines in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum and has n =1 1  Paschen series n =31  Brackett series n =4 1  If we pass white light though a vapor composed of the atoms of an element, we see its  absorption spectrum, a series of dark lines on an otherwise continuous spectrum  Black body: an object that absorbs and emits all frequencies of radiation without favor  Josef Stefan investigated the increasing brightness of a black body as it is heated and  discovered that the total intensity of radiation emitted over all wavelengths increases as the  fourth power of the absolute temperature (Total intensity = constant [5.67x10  W.m .K ] x 2 ­4 4 T )  Wien’s Law (Tλ max= constant [2.9 K.mm]  Ultraviolet catastrophe: classical physics predicted that any hot body should emit intense ultraviolet radiation and even alpha and gamma rays  Max Planck proposed that the exchange of energy between matter and radiation occurs in quanta, or packets, of energy  E=hυ (h=plack’s constant, 6.626x10 ) ­34  Photoelectric effect: the ejection of electrons from a metal when its surface is exposed to ultraviolet radiation  Albert Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation consists of particles, or photons  The energy required to remove an electron from the surface of a metal is called the work function of the metal, φ  E  =khυ – φ OR 1/2m v  = eυ – φ  Bohr frequency condition: ΔE = hυ

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