Biology 2 weeks 1 -3 notes for exam 1
Biology 2 weeks 1 -3 notes for exam 1 Bio 1144
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Laster on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see Biology II in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Bio II Notes Weeks 1-3 Notes for Exam I Chapters 26-34 *Okay, sorry guys for such a late note upload! I just recently started doing this so I got the study guide ready first. Reminder that the second study guide WILL have answers since exam 2 is supposed to be difficult. Remember, email me if you have any questions and I will do my best to help!* Taxonomy and Systematics Taxonomy study of classification and the grouping of organisms using similar features (this was used before DNA was discovered) Systematics study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relationships among species both extant (existing) and extinct; taxonomy was part of this, however this involved morphology and genetics Taxon level of grouping based on similar characteristics Proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753 when he used this system to categorize plants collected on a ship’s voyage Binomial System of Nomenclature the two worded scientific name given to all species Hierarchy system of organization that involves successive levels; uses subgroups to make each level more exact Robert Whittaker proposed a 5 kingdom system: Monera, Protista, Fungi (he is such a funguy hahaha<what no takers… fine), Plantae, Animalia. Monera made up of prokaryotes; while the other four were made up of eukaryotes Carl Woese proposed using a domain a category above Kingdom that had 3 separate categories: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya Phylogenetic Trees is similar to a family tree in that is uses the information from systematics to create a diagram describing the evolutionary relationships Kingdom Monera has two domains: Archaea and Bacteria. Archaea is more closely related to eukaryotes than to prokaryotes, but they do share common attributes Bacteria are the largest group of organisms on the planet (< largest understatement since someone called WWII sorta Hitler’s fault) There is some debate on whether or not Prokaryotes can be considered organisms, since one of the requirements are sexual reproduction yet prokaryotes do not reproduce sexually. Domain Archaea and Domain Eukarya shared a common ancestor and have a lot in common (such as the relationship between cousins with bacteria being the great great great aunt that no one is sure how she is related to them or even if she is related) Fossils showing the common ancestor between arachaea and eukarya have been found up to 3.5 billion years The Domain Archaea which translates into “almost” nucleus can exist in some pretty harsh environments – Extremophiles (sounds like a tv show) EXTREMO PHILES Domain Bacteria has two subgroups: Proteobacteria (TRUE bacteria) and Cyanobacteria (BlueGreens called so because their use of photosynthesis give them color) Kingdom Monera also makes it difficult to trace evolutionary relationships (going back to the cousins with their great great great mystery aunt) Kingdom Protista (not named because they like to protest… but that would be hilarious) this kingdom has the earliest forms of eukaryotes and like to live in moist environments, most protests are microscopic (Most because like anything else in biology, just because something is defined doesn’t mean there aren’t exemptions—which there are to EVERYTHING: personally I think it’s one of the many ways to stress us out) Algae fall in this Kingdom, while they are plantlike they aren’t considered in Kingdom Plantae. They are Autotrophic (selffeeders) in that they use Photosynthesis for food, this is also why they are widely green, however some are parasitic and actually “ingest” food from their host plant Kingdom Protists has a large size range from unicellular organisms to multicellular organisms Kingdom Fungi (soooo many puns and Yes, this is where shrooms come from.) Did you know that mushrooms are possibly the largest organism on Earth? One mushroom you see by your house could very well be connected by microfilaments to that other mushroom you see at school… that you hypothetically live ten hours away from (THAT particular drive must suck) they live in soil or other organic material (Such as trees) Mushroom terminology: (because why not?) the “head” of the mushroom is the conspicuous portion while the body is composed of mycelium and hyphae (filaments) and is generally the part not seen Also, the Kingdom Fungi is generally what eats decaying bodies… yeah figured you would wanna know, but they are considered to be the “recyclers” of the world. They are heterotrophic and absorption feeders saprotrophic Kingdom Fungi reproduce with spores released from their “fruiting bodies” and since they need a lot of water for growth and reproduction their rhizomorphs (filaments) collect and distribute water. Kingdom Fungi organisms do have cell walls that are made from chitin (kiten) Kingdom Plantae (you know… those guys that kicked Fungi outta their group) >300,000 species, multicelluar, eukaryotic, some are heterotrophic and eat other organisms while most are autotrophic and use photosynthesis for nourishment, most are terrestrial (anchored in soil) but again, there are some exemptions, such as lily pads that float on water with no anchor 3 characteristics: Food storage compound (starch), Photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a and b a being the main pigment), and they have a cell wall composed of the complex sugar cellulose for internal support ROOTS a must have for plants on land for water Ten major groups in Kingdom Plantae Phylums: 1) Phylum Hepatophyta (liverworts) 2) Phylum Anthocerophyta (Hornworts) (1,2,3 are similar) 3) Phylum Bryophyta (mosses) 4) Phylum Lycopodiophyta (lycophytes) (4 and 5 are similar) 5) Phylum Pteriodophyta (ferns and allies they have a UN and everything) 6) Phylum Cycadophyta (cycads) 7) Phylum Ginkgophyta (ginkgo) (69 are similar: gymnosperms naked seeds) 8) Phylum Gnetophyta (gnetophytes) 9) Phylum Coniferophyta (conebearing trees) 10)Phylum Anthophyta (flowering/fruiting plants by themselves) Bryophytes (13) simple plants that are some of the earliest recorded, nonvascular (no conducting tissues), and are the smallest plants requiring external water source for reproduction Pteridophytes (4 and 5) small, reproduce via spores, and are vascular (conducting tissues) They also have true roots, stems, and leaves with Xylem (conduct water and minerals) and Phloem (conduct food), also require external water source for reproduction Gymnosperms (69) conebearing (again mostly, really hating that word) within this group are the oldest and tallest organisms on the planet (oldest Bristle cone pine/ tallestredwood and ignoring fungicause Kingdom Plantae realllly likes to do that the biggest organism Giant Sequoia), they are vascular with Xylem and Phloem with exposed seeds, however no external water resource is required as the seed hold the embryo, stored food, and has a protective covering lending it a ‘survival value’ Angiosperms (10) also have a ‘survival value’ including enclosed seeds with no requirement for external water and are considered to be the most advanced and complex. The seed has the embryo, stored food, and a protective covering of 2 integuments. flowers: not just that pretty thing outside our window, they also attract pollinators (forget the birds and the bees it’s the plants and everything the heck else that likes brightly colored pretty things yes including humans, when we eat apples we sometimes ingest the seed then er… release them later, and then a plant grows from our feces… ah the beauty of nature) fruits: serve to protect the seeds and the above analogy actually goes here… I got ahead of myself :D Kingdom Animalia (where we are) since we honestly have no idea how many species there are we guess around 1.5 million but there could be greater than 3 million. Guys, this also includes insects and sadly insects make up the largest percentage of this Kingdom (crying in a corner is reasonable but watch out for that spider crawling beside your head) Kingdom Animalia had one single ancestor that was probably a flagellated protest (no not a gassy protest one with a flagellum… jeese guys… wait that was just me… AWWWkward), because of the need to make me cry there are 35 phylums making up Kingdom Animalia, yet almost all of them are incredibly similar unlike with other kingdoms, they are multicellular, lack cell walls, and sexually reproduce(I could make a joke here but… none of us wanna hear that). Kingdom Animalia has Hox genes (determine body shape during embryonic development) and (mostly REEEEAAAALLLLLY hating that word) have nervous tissue. Since the cells don’t have a cell wall they have protein binding cells which offer stability and strength (they are the counselors of the cells) The body plans of the Kingdom Animalia are –body symmetry # of tissue layers –presense/absence of a body cavity (Real descriptive there bud) –patterns of embryonic dev. Metazoans multicellular and are animals 2 groups: Para(almost)zoasponges and Eu(true)etazoa literally everything else *here I actually missed class, so the notes I am writing from here are those I made from the chapters, I did that with the others as well but I only listed what the professor claimed were important with these I wrote everything I felt was important, which I may have failed miserably but I only missed one day so after these everything else is good to go* Animals are mulitcellular heterotrophs their lack of cell walls allow for greater flexability (I guess mine have a bit more stiffness to them…. Not funny? Fine then…) Animals are not autotrophic so they get food from one of three ways: suspension feeding: filtering food out of surrounding water bulk feeding: carnivores/herbivores fluid feeding: plant sap or animal body fluid (looking at you mosquitoes you evil vampires) Most (we all know I hate that word by now) animals have muscle tissue to facilitate movement and muscularskeletal sys, sensory sys, and a nervous sys that all work together to help the cat catch a mouse Again: because it wouldn’t be complete without exceptions: some anchored organisms are considered animals because as young, embryonic organisms they were able to move (i.e. sessile species) Sexual Reproduction almost (grr) all species in the animal Kingdom reproduce sexually however some reproduce asexually (I am convinced rabbits can just split apart to make more those things reproduce way too fact) Metamorphosis in other words caterpillar>butterfly or any other species that’s alike. Animal life began more than 1x10^9 years ago! (you welcome for the scientific notation, I know it’s your favorite ;) The first animals to evolve were invertebrates Cambrian explosion kinda the big bang except for the sudden explosion of animals… I guess that was a big… bang…. HAHAHAhaha…. Not funny? Fine, I will be mature from here on out no I won’t There were three proposed causes for this sudden onslaught of animal species 1) favorable environment 2 the evolution of the hox gene may have permitted morphology variation 3 predators evolved and so did the prey creating more defenses and protection (i.e Tom and Jerry Tom tries something new Jerry finds a way to defeat it) Embryonic Dev. In gastrulation the endoderm forms an indention, the blastopore, in which is the opening archenteron to the outside. In protosomes the blastopore becomes the mouth in deutersomes the anus. (guys I have no idea what I just wrote and I am sure you feel similarly so go to https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=k_9MTZgAhv0 you are very welcome for that LOVE Hank Green if you are in chem. I recommend him for that as well) There are two types of cleavage (don’t think of it like that! We are not talking about THAT kinda cleavage c’mon guys…) –spiral (shelllike) and –radial (each layer of cells lie on top of another layer) For ch. 33 I recommend looking at the diagrams it provides *back to guided notes* Phylum Chordata deuterostomes with a few invertebrates. They have an endoskeleton which means their skeleton is inside their bodies. Yhere are four critical innovations to Chordates: 1) notochord skeletal support (in humans the notochord is replaced by bony elements known as the discs of our backbone/ vertebrae) 2) Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord –expands at anterior end to form the brain (in humans its hollow and dorsal forming the spinal cord and brain) 3)Pharyngeal slits pharynx found at the back of the mouth cavity gills: water enters and out slitsgills for gas exchange (in humans its during the embryonic dev. But one is actually retained and forms one of the small bones/ Eustachian tube pair/ of the inner ear) 4) Postanal tail extended back bone, four fish groups actually exhibit this (in humans we have a tail in embryonic dev. And 1 vertebrae is retained as the coccyx the pointy thing we break if we fall too hard on our butts literally no other purpose) Subphylum Uro(tail)chordate tunicates, about 3000 species, invertebrates, marine living (not military sea water), and are filter feeders. The adult resembles a sponge and is rooted to place but in the larval stages can actually swim around. Subphylum Cephalochordata lancelets, 25 species, invertebrates, marine, and filter feeders. The adult and larvae look the exact same just one gets bigger Subphylum Vertebrata “Backboned” as the name suggests they are vertebrates, and have an endoskeleton. The cranium increased in size with the introduction of the vertebral column and hox genes formed 2 clusters to form more complexity in dev. Also, a neural crest formed allowing cells to migrate. Class Myxini hagfishes (those fish that none of the others like because they are just such hags…. Yeah ik that sucked) they are marine (since they are fish) they are slimy with about 30 species and are jawless (so they always look like their mouth is hanging open haha) nearly blind, with a skeleton. Honestly if they have vertebrae they are weakly developed Class Cephalospidomorph ‘jawless fish’ marine, and fresh water living, 40 species, slimy, most (.) are parasitic but some are filter feeders, notochord in adults and a cartilage formed backbone I have been at this for hours… And I am sure ya’ll are tired too but don’t forget the test is soon, but breaks are recommended! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_bVvzUccc8g I LOVE markiplier this isn’t his norm video type, if you like watching people play video games I recommend him and the other guys in that video Only a little more!!!!! Class Chondri(cartilage)chyes cartilaginous fish, these guys do have jaws, fins, notochord in adults, and a cartilage made backbone MOST are marine and more than 850 species. (guys…. These are the… duuuuuuuh du… duuuuuuh du…… duuuuuuh du… duhhh du dddduh duh duh du dududududududududu AHHHHH… sharks I meant sharks btw that was the very bad jaws theme) Class Ostei(bone)chyes BONY FISH (so many jokes are possible) with more than 24000 species they make up ½ of the vertebrates. Bony skeleton in MOST, some with notochord that becomes cartilaginous vertebrae in adulthood, jaw and fins and very successful in marine and fresh waterTetrapods – 4 legged Class Amphibia ‘living a double life’ (huh… I guess Hannah Montana is an amphibian) these were the first terrestrial vertebral group. As larvae they are aquatic but as adults they become terrestrial and because of this they mostly lay eggs around water or in it, of the 4000 amphibians 85% are FROGS Class Reptilia turtles, crocs, lizards, pretty much everything in the bayou. They are able to live away from water with thicker skin and scales. They have an amniotic egg (not laid in water, advanced shelled egg, with three internal membranes) Reproduce three ways: 1) Oviparous egg laying 2) Ovoviparous live bearing (though the eggs are within the mother they are not connected in any way) 3) Viviparous live bearing with retained eggs WITH a maternal connection placenta you are welcome. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=kgZRZmEc9j4 WATCH Class Aves BIRDS (BIRD BIRD BIRD IS THE WORD oh God what have I started?) Over 9,000 species, most fly (penguins don’t) evolved from dinos, They have an extremely light weight skeleton to allow for flight, and have both air sacs and lungs for gas exchange because of their HIGH need for oxygen they ALSO eat as much as a hungry college student at an all to eat buffet. That’s free. Birds also have organ reduction with organs they have 2 of, such as ovaries and their forelimbs are modified into wings. ALL birds are egg layers. (I LOVE the word all!) Endothermic high internal temperature (birds/mammals) homeostasis Ectothermic external heat (reptiles, fish, amphibians) Class Mammalia humans fall in here/ greater than 6000 species, ancestor was probably reptilian and came before birds. MOST complex and can range from tiny to huge (whales), and have hair and mammary glands (yes, even dudes theirs just don’t lactate) Endothermic, have teeth 1)heterodont dentition different kinds of teeth (molars, canines,…) 2)thecodont dentition same teeth embedded in jaw 3) diphycodont dentition 2 sets of teeth in a lifetime (or 3 but you have to pay for the third set) Class Mammalia also have an increased skull size humans have the largest brain/spinal cord ratio (55:1) and are mostly viviparous except for three species Pinna: flap of cartilage and loose connective tissue to funnel sound waves, three middle ear ossicles to conduct sound, dentary one solid bone making up jaw Order Primates grasping digits, flattened face, nails instead of claws, binocular vision (meaning that instead of eyes on either side of the head, they eyes are both in the front allowing for the vision to coalesce into one large view), able to learn much faster/easier (like you are doing right now.. I hope), enhanced sense of touch due to the hairs all over the body, and parental investment (meaning the offspring stay with the parents for an extended amount of time) Okay! Those are all the notes for weeks 13 and for exam 1! Check out my study guide for the exam 1! If you have any questions email me at email@example.com and I will try to help you out! Also, feel free to include ideas on how I can better help ya’ll out for the next set! This is all the notes in one, but starting next exam I am going to be doing each week separately! Have a great day and do well on the exam!
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