History 170 Lecture Notes: Week #2
History 170 Lecture Notes: Week #2 HIST 170
Popular in World History, Ancient-1500
Popular in History
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lesley Bui on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 170 at Colorado State University taught by Derek Everett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see World History, Ancient-1500 in History at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
HIST 170 Lecture Notes: Week #2 Fighting for the Fertile Crescent • Babylonian Law: The Code of Hammurabi o Created to reinforce his own authority o 282 separate laws that covered about every single aspect of life § Carved into separate pillars throughout the empire § Suggests that literacy was widespread o Class-based law system § Punishments were based on your own class and that of the other party (favored the upper class) § Capital punishment sanctioned, reinforced fear o There was a carving depicting one of the empire’s gods handing Hammurabi the set of laws on every pillar § Fueled the idea of religion by fear § Political and religious pressure o 1 ancient document that suggests any rights other than equal between males and females § Men makes decisions in households • However women still have some sort of power, such as suing for divorce, etc. § Increase of metal technology • The shift to a more patriarchal society might be linked • Pastoralists and Horse Culture o Constant fear of pastoralist conquest o Horse: the biggest advantage § Most popular and valuable tool (for work and for warfare) o North side of Middle East § These pastoralist groups were the most trouble o Indo-Europeans § Languages • Western: o Hellenes (Greece) o Italians (Italy) o Celts (Scotland, Ireland) • Central: o Hittites, etc. • Eastern: o Medes o Persians (Middle East) o Aryans (India) § Similarities between structures of languages show interactions between these groups • Hittite Expansion and Collapse o 1600’s: invasion that conquers Babylonians o 1 group to develop iron technology o Not unified, separated factions o But for a while, able to put aside internal conflict and conquer much more area around them o Egypt challenges them, but are only equal in power, can’t conquer them o Civil War of Hittites (1200 B.C.) destroys empire o No authority after Hittites fall o Small, fractured groups spread out • Hebrew Civilization in Eastern Mediterranean o Semitic pastoralist group o ~1500 B.C. Hebrews raiding Eastern Mediterranean but caught between Hittites in the north and Egypt in the south § Therefore they needed to make allies, so they traveled south and joined with Egypt (1500-1200 B.C.) o During times of conflict, they took advantage of weakness of the two powerful groups in the north and south and carve out a place for themselves (modern-day Israel) o 900’s B.C. § Hebrews hit the peak of reign under their ruler: Solomon § Faith of the Hebrews: the shift from polytheism to monotheism • Hebrews from the cult of Yahweh (Judaism) • Yahweh was chosen from numerous other gods, was seen as the most powerful • This shift may be due to the Egyptians § Hebrews seen very negatively because of the shift to monotheism § 10 Commandments § Endure until 700’s B.C, but then begin to lose control • Phoenicia and its Colonies (~1100 B.C. -500 B.C.) o Owned land just above Hebrews o Firs human culture to develop seafaring technology § Greatest traveled, the merchants § Developed ideas of mapping, navigation o Carthage § Important colony developing into an independent trade center § Commercial hub § Used as an escape group o Explorers of early civilizations o Phoenician coins found in America § Shows interactions across Atlantic Ocean o Written language § Before Phoenicians, language was only pictograms (idiograms) § Created written language based on sound: phonetics § Therefore literacy was more widespread because there were less symbols to remember § ~800’s B.C. they were the greatest power still left • The Assyrians o ~700’s B.C. was the next great Pastoralist invasion o They unified, by force, small groups scattered around the remains of the fertile crescent o Were ruthless in violence and warfare o Conquers all of what was the fertile crescent, even Egypt o 600 B.C: takes over Hebrews o Takes over homeland of Phoenicia (whose inhabitants go to Carthage) o Assyrians were more directly connected to pastoralist life, which led to their success o Copied earlier civilizations § Preserved older knowledge and utilized it o End of 600’s, early 500’s B.C: Assyrians fell apart • Ancient Persia o Powerful, but less violent and aggressive than the Assyrians o Beginning of 500’s B.C: launch invasion under Cyrus II o Cyrus’ conquests less painful § Struck deals with the inhabitants of areas he conquered § Said that the Persians were in charge, and victims had to pay taxes, etc. but they could do essentially whatever they wanted to o Cyrus seemed to be benevolent, stable therefore the Persian expansion became very successful, and without conflict o Persian Culture and Growth § Polytheistic § Zoroaster (Zarathustra) and Zoroastrianism • The shift from religion of fear to that of peace • Kindness, interactions with others, and taking power from the sky and grounding it on earth • Proactive toward the gods, not reactive • Helped to transform and shift faith all around it o Cyrus dies in 530 B.C. and son Cambyses takes over § Cambyses wants to mirror old Assyrian ways, but dies soon after his reign in battle § Persians struggle to find a ruler like Cyrus o 521 B.C. Height of Persia: Darius I § Created expansion of stability like Cyrus § Persia spreads all the way to Europe, Asia § Saw competition in Greece, but seemed insignificant at first The Dynamic Dynasties of Ancient Egypt • The Nile River and the Corridor of Ancient Egypt o Any river in the world will flood at some point in the year, but in Egypt, floods were gentle and therefore looked as an essential moment in the calendar because it replenishes the soil o Kemet: dark/rich earth o Upper Egypt is lower than lower Egypt § It is “higher up” than lower Egypt, relative to the river flow o Egypt functioned the best when upper and lower Egypt worked together • Menes and Archaic Egypt: The Pharaoh (3200 B.C. - 2800 B.C.) o First conquest to unify Egypt o First dynasty: royal family o Keeps non-familial people out of rule o Menes was the first pharaoh § Pharaohs had political responsibility § But also served as the intermediary between the people and the gods § We will see pharaohs being kicked out of rule because they are fulfilling their responsibilities • The Archaic Period o Foundation of Egypt o Hieroglyphics: Hieratic and Demotic § Literacy was not widespread in Egypt § Hieratic: formal hieroglyphics, the official written language, used in regard to royalty § Demotic: more common language, used in casual conversations, common business interactions o Napoleon Bonaparte and the Rosetta Stone (1799) § Able to decipher what hieroglyphics meant after many years of lost meaning § Rosetta Stone (200 B.C.): • Three distinct sections of the stone for three different forms of writing o Top: Hieratic o Middle: Demotic o Bottom: Ancient Greek • The Old Kingdom: Re and Ma’at (~2800 B.C. – 2200 B.C.) o Ma’at: pharaoh’s responsibility to maintain happiness, prosperity, success, safety of the people o If something bad happens, a new pharaoh is put into place o Re: God of the Sun § Most powerful of the gods, authority figure § Pharaoh’s responsibility to communicate with Re o Time of the greatest economic stability o Pyramids: Passing to the next Life in Style § Technology and planning takes a long amount of time § A way to respect the pharaoh § Egyptians have a fascination with life after death § Tomb of pharaohs representative of who they were according to the people § Pyramids were located in Giza § Khufu (Cheops) • Largest pyramid located in the middle • Pharaoh in the 4 dynasty • Covers 13 acres around and was 500 ft. tall • Made of two million blocks of stone • Took 15-20 years to build • Hints at the influence, status of the pharaoh § Originally, the pyramids were covered in limestone and polished with a capstone on the top made of a blend of gold and silver for when the sun shines on it o Mummification § Everyone in Ancient Egypt has some sort of preservation, the pharaoh just goes through the most extensive process § Pack the body in a case of salt and spices to draw out the moisture of the body § Used obsidian to dissect and remove internal organs which were dried and then placed into jars § Inside of the body was packed with salt again § Brain could not be understood by the Ancient Egyptians • Took a long hook and put through the nasal cavity to liquefy the brain and then emptied • This is why a golden mask is used to cover the face § Takes about 2-3 months to prepare the body § Overseen by a priest dressed as Anubis, god of the afterlife • First Intermediate Period (2200 – 2000 B.C.) o Civil war o Around the time of Babylonian conquest o Northern Egypt takes over the south, creating the Middle Kingdom • The Middle Kingdom (2000 – 1700 B.C.) o Largest city of upper Egypt: Thebes o Invention of a new god: Amon-Re § Amon and Re unified o Pharaohs no longer command that much authority/power anymore • Second Intermediate Period (1700 – 1550 B.C.) o The Hyksos Invasion o Civil war begins again (Memphis vs. Thebes) o Pastoralist invasion: Hyksos § Occupy lower Egypt for around 100 years § Thebes bribes them not to invade o 1550 B.C: upper Egypt invades lower Egypt again, driving the Hyksos away • The New Kingdom (1550 – 700 B.C.) o Hyksos invasion teaches Egypt to develop defense and offense system o Increase in militization (around the same time the Hittites develop iron) o Both use iron for conquest and force o Imperial Expansion: Thutmose II § In charge of the end of the 1500’s B.C. § Sent armies as far as modern-day Iraq, the Mediterranean Coast, up the Nile, and deep into the heart of Africa § Every time he conquered a group, royal heads were executed, but royal children were adopted for himself § Built obelisks (monuments) for himself made of solid stone with hieroglyphics commemorating himself • “Cleopatra’s Needle” (Central Park) o In reality, it was Thutmose’s obelisk, Cleopatra doesn’t come until around 1500 years later § 1504 B.C. Thutmose dies unexpectedly • Regency: (regent) a powerful individual that takes power until the ruler is old enough to rule; “temporary government” § Regent: Thutmose II’s wife/sister, Thutmose III’s mother/aunt • Firs woman in history to have ruled o Hatshepsut (R. 1504 – 1483 B.C.) § Had been Thutmose II’s right-hand during his rule § Transforms herself from regent to pharaoh § Her reign is very successful, dressed as a man to appeal to people § Almost no records of her reign exist in Egypt, but were recorded from other civilizations § 1483: dies “mysteriously” when her son is old enough to rule § Thutmose III carves out her entire existence § Takes over her grand tomb § Within the most recent last 10 years, the tomb of Hatshepsut was discovered § New Kingdom hits its peak in 1300’s B.C. o Amenhotep IV (Akhenaten) (R. 1349 – 1334 B.C.) § Religious vision: was visited by one of the lower-ranking gods: Aten § Aten gives a warning, the Egyptians were worshipping incorrectly, there was only one god that should be worshipped: Aten himself § Therefore almost overnight, Egypt shifts from polytheism to monotheism § Akhenaten = “pleasing to Aten” § Feels like he needs to build a new city to put in place his new ideas • Creates Akhentaten (Amarna) – “city of Aten” o Filled with temples to Aten § 1334 B.C. Akhenaten dies, and monotheism dies with him § Old ways resume o Restoration of Amon-Re under Tutankhaten (Tutankhamen) (R. 1334 – 1325 B.C.) § Most “popular” pharaoh because his tomb was the first to be found by modern archaeologists § Had a short reign, not very significant o Ramses II (R. 1279 – 1212 B.C.) § His reign corresponds with the end of the Hittites § Builds monuments for himself as well § After his death, Egypt slowly collapses th o The 36 Dynasty: The End of Ancient Egypt, Division and Conquest (~700’s B.C.) § Assyrians take over
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