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Week 1 Notes

by: Grace Lee

Week 1 Notes Com 200

Grace Lee
GPA 3.6
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About this Document

These are notes of Chapter 1.
Public Speaking
Mr. Frederick
Class Notes
public speaking




Popular in Public Speaking

Popular in Communication Studies

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Grace Lee on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Com 200 at Pace University taught by Mr. Frederick in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Communication Studies at Pace University.


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Date Created: 01/30/16
Chapter 1: Becoming A Public Speaker (TEXT: “A Speaker’s Guidebook”, 6 Edition) - Study public speaking to:  Gain real-life skills  Advance professional goals  Enhance your career  Become an engaged citizen - Most important qualities in an employee:  Communication skills  Teamwork skills  Time management skills  Interpersonal skills  Motivation/initiative  Strong work ethic Rhetoric – (oratory) the practice of public speaking - Was practiced in the agora – public square or marketplace - Used to settle civil disputes, set public policy, and establish laws - Rights were limited to free, property-holding males Forum – public space in which people gathered to deliberate about issues of the day Canons of Rhetoric: 1. Forensic oratory – legal speech used to persuade jurors 2. Deliberative oratory – speech given in legislative or political contexts 3. Epideictic oratory – speech delivered in special ceremonies [Speech Preparation] 4. Invention – adapting speech information to audience to make your case - inventio – discovering your speech material 5. Arrangement – organizing speech in ways that are best suited to topic and audience - dispositio – arranging material 6. Style – the way the speaker uses language to express speech ideas - elocutio – styling speech 7. Memory – practicing speech until it can be artfully delivered - memoria – remembering various lines of argument to prove case 8. Delivery – vocal and nonverbal behavior you use when speaking - pronounciatio – vocal and nonverbal delivery Skills you already have that will help you: 1. Conversational skills – provide instinctive adjustments to audience, topic, and occasion 2. Composition skills – help you research topic, offer evidence, use effective transitions, and devise persuasive appeals Become and Inclusive Speaker: - create a sense of inclusion by addressing diverse audiences with sensitivity - demonstrate respect for differences in culture – language, beliefs, values, norms, behaviors, and even material objects that are passed from one generation to the next - cultivate cultural intelligence – willingness to learn about other cultures and gradually reshape thinking and behavior in response to what you’ve learned 4 Human Communication Categories: 1. Dyadic – communication between two people (conversation) 2. Small group – communication among small number of people who can see and speak directly with one another (meeting) 3. Mass – communication between speaker and large audience of unknown people (radio or television broadcast) 4. Public Speaking – speaker delivers message with specific purpose to audience that is present during speech delivery (audience listens with limited interruption) Similarities between Public Speaking & Other forms of Communication: - speaking to other people who are focused on you (SMALL GROUP) - thinking about audience members’ interests, attitudes, and values (MASS) - trying to make yourself understood; involved and respond to others; take responsibility for your words (DYADIC) Differences: - have less opportunity for response or feedback from your listeners (Speaker must interpret listeners’ verbal and nonverbal cues) - responsible for more of message content, which requires careful preparation - must use more formal communication style Public Speaking as an Interactive Communication Process: All communication involves the following elements: - source - receiver - message - channel - shared meaning - context, goals, outcome - Source (sender) – person who creates message  Speaker transforms ideas and thoughts into messages and sends them to receiver, or audience  Encoding – process of organizing message, choosing words and sentence structure, and verbalizing message - Receiver (audience) – recipient (individual or group) of source’s message  Decoding – process of interpreting message  Audience members decode meaning of message selectively, based on individual experiences and attitudes  Audience conveys feedback – response to message (can be conveyed both verbally and nonverbally, through gestures; indicates whether speaker’s message has been understood) - Message – content of communication process; thoughts and ideas put into meaningful expressions  Can be expressed both verbally (through sentences and points of speech) and nonverbally (through eye contact and gestures) - Channel – medium through which speaker sends message  E.g. sound waves, air waves, electronic transmission  Noise – anything that interferes with communication process between speaker and audience so that message cannot be understood (can derive from external sources in environment or from internal psychological factors - Shared Meaning – mutual understanding of message between speaker and audience  Lowest level of shared meaning exists when speaker has merely caught audience’s attention  Higher degree of shared meaning is possible as message develops - Context – anything that influences speaker, audience, occasion, and speech  E.g. recent surrounding events, physical setting, order and timing of speeches, and cultural orientation of audience members - Rhetorical situation – circumstances that call for public response  Consideration of audience, occasion, and overall speech situation when planning speech - audience-centered perspective – each phase of speech preparation process is geared toward communication meaningful message to audience - speech purpose – clearly defined goal for what you want audience to learn or do or believe as result of your speech - constructive feedback – helps you assess speech’s effects and decide whether you have accomplished what you set out to do


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