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General Chemistry II Lecture Notes: Week #2

by: Lesley Bui

General Chemistry II Lecture Notes: Week #2 Chem 113

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Chemistry > Chem 113 > General Chemistry II Lecture Notes Week 2
Lesley Bui
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Lecture notes for CHEM 113 for week #2.
General Chemistry II
Dr. Kerry MacFarland
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lesley Bui on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 113 at Colorado State University taught by Dr. Kerry MacFarland in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Colorado State University.

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Date Created: 01/30/16
Ch. 12 cont. Friday, January 22, 201610:20 AM • (Marble example from previous class) ○ Many more ways to arrange marbles in amixed arrangement than unmixed, and more probable to be mixed than unmixed • Entropy increases with mixing ○ Energy of particles mixing is more dispersed ○ More available microstates(for the macrostate) ○ *Miscible substances mix spontaneously because there is a higher probability of mixed distribution  Most probable: uniformly mixed (like marble model) • Another example: gas in a smaller/larger volume ○ More particles: more likely to spread out ○ Statistically probable to spread out ○ Entropy increases  Energy dispersed  More microstates are available when they fill a larger volume • Microstates: ○ Consider 1 mole of2N (g) ○ *Energy (no matter what form) of each molecule is quantized  Electronic  Kinetic: vibrational, translational, rotational ○ Energy of the system is also quantized ○ Each microstate: is a quantized energy state of the system ○ At any given conditions: each of the available microstates,  have the same total energy  Is equally likely  The number of microstates for a system is the number of ways it can disperse energy among its particles ○ Entropy increases with the number of available microstates CHEM 113 Page 1 • Absolute Entropy ○ 3rd Law of Thermodynamics  A perfect crystal has zero entropy at 0° K ○ Adding thermal energy with increase the temperature and increase entropy ○ Absolute entropy values can be measured ○ Especially: standard molar entropy(S°)  25°C (298 K)  1 bar (~1 atm)  Pure, or 1 M solution ○ *see Table 12.2 or Appendix 4 or ALEKS data ○ Units: J/mol*K ○ Ssolid liquidSgas ○ Trends:  Large increase in entropy (S) as phase change  (see an increase in entropy (S) as temperature (T) increases)  S° increases as molar mass increases  S° increases as molecule shape is elongated rather than branched (same molar mass)  S° increases for a less rigid molecule □ More rigid molecule has less freedom of motion and a lower S°  Ex. Clicker □ Gas > liquid □ Gas > dissolved in 2 O □ Solid < aqueous □ N O2>4NO 2 • 2nd Law of Thermodynamics ○ The entropy of the universe (or any isolated system) increases during a spontaneous process  Systems: □ Open  Exchange matter and energy with surroundings □ Closed  Exchange only energy □ Isolated  Neither ○ Universe = system + surroundings ○ ∆ Suniverse system ∆ surroundings  ∆Suniverse0 = spontaneous  ∆Suniverse0 = nonspontaneous  So a reaction is always spontaneous if bo∆Ssystem 0 and∆S surroundings  More complicatedif S∆ systemnd ∆ Ssurroundings opposite signs ○ How does a reaction affec∆ Ssurroundings  If a reaction is exothermic, it transfers heat to the surroundings  Surroundings: increase in temperature, more freedom of motion(of air molecules), increase in entropy ○ ∆ S = q/T (heat/temperature)  In reversible reaction, don't worry about definition of reverse • Calculating Entropy Changes ○ S is a state function CHEM 113 Page 2 • Under standard conditions, calculati∆g S°from S° of products times reactants rxn • Free Energy ○ Recall:  ∆Suniverse0 = spontaneous  ∆SuniverseSsystem ∆ surroundings  We can calculate the∆S°systemnder standard conditions (298 K, 1 bar from table) ○ Better: evaluate thermodynamicsof system without worrying about surroundings ○ Recall:  q surroundingsHsystem  And S∆ surroundingsHsystemTemp  ∆SuniverseSsystem∆HsystemTemp *(now we can ignore the surroundings) ○ Gibbs Free Energy (G)  Freed to do useful work (available energy)  The maximum amount of energy available to do useful work 1 CHEM 113 Page 3 • What makes a reaction spontaneous?∆( G > 0) CHEM 113 Page 4 CHEM 113 Page 5


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