Week 3 Notes
Popular in Development Politics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 2337 at George Washington University taught by Jessica C. Liao in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
January 26, 2016 Bureaucracy ● A majority of political scientist believe that to have a good bureaucrhecks need c on power and democratic accountability ○ Fukuyana believes that before you have anything else you need to have a good bureaucracy ● Government’s our basic functions 1. Regulating Externalitiregulating results or extra things that come with systems in place a. Ex: Drug regulation, public safety, legal system b. This also includes regulatnformation asymmetry by making things companies more transparent and setting up clear rules 2. Providing Private GoodsGoods that have to be shared by all a. Most basic of government functions b. Ex: clean air, national defense 3. Social Regulationorms that society follows a. Ex: lawbinding, gender equality 4. Redistributing Between Elites and Pubone for self interest because governments don’t want instabiot about democracy a. Needs to minimizefreeriders (people not doing work because they are given everything b. Huge debate in USA on how to do this ● 3 categories: 1. Minimal Functionsproviding for the common good 2. Intermediate Functionsegulating externalities a. How to do this is a huge debate in developed countries 3. Activist Functiongovernment taking a very active role to change institutions a. Fukuyana says that this can be seen in healthcare and industrial policy ● No matter what category you focus hings run better or worse depending on bureaucracy ● 2 dimensions for measuring bureaucracy: ○ Scopes of state functiow big government is? ■ Public spending part of GDP ■ Economists use taxes and government spending to measure this ○ Strength of state instituhow s: effective is government ■ Procedural Approach: a. Max Weber b. Strict organization of institutions c. Meritbased bureaucracy d. Measures: impartiality, perceived level of corruption ■ Capacity Approach: a. How capable is government ofreating policies and execute them b. How capable is it to “penetrate” society ■ Output Approach: a. Look at whatervices the government actually provides b. Useful for developing countries topy the institutions of developed countries but aren’t able to have same outcomes (isomorphic mimicry) c. Ex: 4 dragons in East Asia saw huge economic growth because made sure that those leading the economic policy were the best; Southern East Asia countries tried to copy this but never developed the same way as the 4 dragons ■ Bureaucratic Approach: a. Looks at thedegree of autonomy a government has n actions like hiring staff b. High or low levels of autonomy can lead to lots of power in the government but also no personal ties in government staff ● Graph shows that the efficiency of the government is more directly related to how to develop it is while size of government is not ○ Quality > size ○ Those that are considered failed state have both little efficiency and low scope ● States in comparison: ○ Germany: state with strong and efficient bureaucracy ○ Greece & Italystates with lotsclientelism and corruption ■ Have huge problem with public finance ○ Intermediate StatesBritain and USA both started out with clientelism but underwent reforms and developed a modern civil service ■ Each state had a different level of corruption but ithe industrial revolution caused industries to call for change and for new social groups ○ Sequence of when bureaucracy and democracy appear seem to determine this ■ Bureaucracy before democracy= good bureaucracy ■ Democracy before Bureaucracy= clientelism ● Questions to consider: 1. Which approach works best when looking at your country? What are the pros and cons of each approach? 2. What other factors affect quality of government, other than the sequence mentioned by Fukuyana? a. Should think about the whole scope (social mobility, economic growth and legitimacy January 28, 2016 Prussia Builds a State ● Germany in 1648End of the 30 years War ○ Treaty of Westphaliaet up the foundation for the way Europe is set up in modern times ○ Germany consisted of ots of small states under the name “Holy Roman Empire” ■ Many little kings but no one was able to unite theecause they were unable to raise tax revenue or enforce laws ○ Had no bureaucracy to help run state ● Rise oHouse of Hohenzollern: ○ End of structure consisting of small states ○ The “Great Elector” createdstanding army ○ Had 3 strong kingsFrederick William “the Great Elector” (16401688); King Frederick WIlliam (17131740) and Frederick II (17401786) ■ Frederick II made Germany an “army with a nation” ○ These kings had enough power toorce elites to pay taxes di to them ■ Other places like Britain did not see this with elites limiting Kings by not paying them taxes ○ Rise of thJunker class: transformed from moving bandits to stationary bandits ■ First they would go around taking crops or destroying them when they were not paid ■ Later became settle in one place and got farmers to pay them taxes ○ End of the SwedishPolish Warey point in creating a standing army because army remained even after the war ended ■ To ensure that they would survive by being protected from neighbors ○ Cultural Dimension: ■ The desire for a moral and uncorrupt government came fcalvinism ● Calvinism also led ew set of institutions that were tied to religion but controlled by the government ■ Dutch and Huguenot coreligionists imported to work in government leading tmore autonomy ■ This all paved the way for a strong bureaucracy ● Patrimonial to Modern Bureaucracy: ○ At first the bureaucracy ighly controlled by the Hohenzollern family ○ Separation betweenilitary and civil bureaucracy ■ Created a war commissariat that became increasingly powerful due to taxes ■ Each one had its own autonomy ○ Transition to a modern bureaucracy begun wBattle of JenaAuerstadt in 1806 ■ France under Napoleon beat Prussia ■ Napoleon had used a model of modern state which Prussia realized was super powerful and effective due to this battle ○ French also brought Napoleonic Code with rule of law principles ○ Started thSteinHardenberg Reforms ■ Democratic principles with autocratic governliberal autocracy) a. Idea of BildungKing’s improvements had to be for the best of everyone becausee had to think of what what best for his citizens not just himself ■ Positions bureaucracy became open to anyone with talent ■ EDUCATION REQUIREMENT: this was result of a university reform which created special universities in charged of educating future government workers ● What does Rechtsstaatean? ○ Particular rule of law ■ Closer to rule by law with everyone treated equally except for the central executive ■ Model of absolutist dictatorship ○ Kings were no longer ruling in the name of God ■ Widespread in Europe ■ Kings were trying to mathemselves right one to rule but need a basis of legitimacy (usually used rule of law) ■ Comes from philosophy that kings need to look at common interest; the people were no longer their property but ikings had to act according to the citizens ○ Important factor in Germany’s economic growth ing beginning to regulate state and property rights thus increasing incentives for businesses to grow ● Paradox ofbureaucratic autonomy and democratic accountability: ○ Principalagent terbureaucrats are ones that have to fulfill the citizens’ wishes ■ Bureaucracy got power from the people to do what is best ■ King and people are the principal; bureaucrats are agents with a lot of autonomy ○ Autonomy started whenFrederick II and Frederick III allowed bureaucrats to do what they wanted as long as they fulfilled what the king had asked ■ Bureaucrats begun to no longer see themselves as servants of the king because they realized they had lots of knowlestart to see themselves as the ones that are ruling) ○ The esprit de corps after 1806 ■ Became prideful of their work ● Absolutist Coalitduring Bismarck: ○ Had power to lock out new agents ○ Coalitionbetween conservative and uppermiddle class against rising agents ■ Constitution of empire to protect bureaucracy ○ Parliament had NO influence over bureaucrat actions ● State within a state: ○ Germany’s army is completelyeparated from rest ○ Had complete control over foreign poleading to WWI as a preventive war (“suicide because of fear of death”) ■ Started a twofront war even though it was told not to ○ Another example of their power was thazi army being able to penetrate the bureaucracy ■ Gave it lots of power ● This is one path to a modern state: ○ Seen in Han/Qin dynasty in China, Sweden, Denmark, France and Japan ■ Always begin with authoritarian rule ■ Little states being united through war because of need to get money to fight a. War also led to a need for a strong bureaucracy ■ No political patronage tied to specific party interest ■ Still, in general political scientists still have not found enough evidence to prove relationship between war and bureaucracy a. True in the past but not as true today
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