PSY202, Week 4 Notes
PSY202, Week 4 Notes PSY 202
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
Motivation and Emotion (Chapter 10) How Does Motivation Activate, Direct, and Sustain Behavior? Motivation is deﬁned as the area of psychological science concerned with the factors that energize, or stimulate, behavior. Emotions play a prominent role in motivation Multiple Factors Motivate Behavior Biological and social needs are deﬁned as a state of deﬁciency Maslow’s needs hierarchy Popular in eduction and business, but lacks empirical support. Self-actualization, esteem, belonging and love, safety, and physiological (in order of priority) Drives: Drives are psychological states that encourage behaviors that satisfy needs Needs create arousal that motivates behavior. Homeostasis: describers the tendency for body functions to maintain equilibrium. Incentives: External objects or external goals, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviors. Arousal and Performance: The Yerkes-Dodson law dictates that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point and then decreases with increasing arousal. Pleasure: Sigmund Freud and the pleasure principle From an evolutionary perspective, behaviors associated with pleasure often promote the animals’ survival and reproduction, whereas behaviors associated with pain interfere with survival and reproduction. Animals prefer to eat sweets; sweetness usually indicates that food is safe to eat. Most poisons and toxins taste bitter, so it’s not surprising that animals avoid bitter tastes. Some Behaviors Are Motivated for Their Own Sake Extrinsic motivation: Emphasizes the external goals an activity is directed toward, such as reducing drive or obtaining a reward. Intrinsic motivation Refers to the value or pleasure that is associated with an activity but has no apparent biological goal People Set Goals to Achieve Self-eﬃcacy and achievement motivation: Albert Bandura argued that people’s personal expectations for success (self-eﬃcacy) play an important role in motivation Achievement motive is the desire to do well relative to standards of excellence Delayed gratiﬁcation: The ability to postpone immediate gratiﬁcation is critical in the pursuit of long-term goals Less school behavior problems Less drug addiction Less obesity Average of 210 points higher on SAT People Have a Need to Belong The need to belong theory state that the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes Lack of social contact causes feelings of emptiness and despair. Anxiety and Aﬃliation: Schachter’s study Misery loves miserable company other people provide information that helps us evaluate whether we are acting appropriately Festinger’s Social Comparison Theory We are motivated to have accurate information so we can compare ourselves with those around us to test and validate personal beliefs and emotional responses. Schachter, 1959 Study Participants (all female) were told they would be hooked up to a machine and given shocks Some told it would be painless and others told it would be quite painful All were told they could wait alone or with other people Most people want to wait with other people Summary of Motivation: There are many factors that motivate our behavior Some are obvious to use and other are hidden Why we do the things we do is one of the fundamental questions of Psychology. Emotions Are Adaptive Emotion refers to feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological, processes, and cognitive beliefs. Negative and positive experiences guide behavior that increases the probability of surviving and reproducing Emotions are adaptive because they prepare and guide behavior. We have many channels to communicate with words gase touch posture touch gesture facial expressions Facial Expression of Emotion Other emotions such as guilt, shame, embarrassment, and price occur later in human development and show less universality These latter emotions are closely tired to social interaction Display rules and gender: Display rules govern how and when emotions are exhibited These rules are learned through socialization and dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations Gender diﬀerence exist: Women more likely to express emotions except for those related to dominance Emotions Serve Cognitive Functions People’s mood can alter ongoing mental processes Psychological scientists generally acknowledge that it is unrealistic to separate emotion from cognition. Emotions Strengthen Interpersonal Relations Recent theories have reconsidered interpersonal emotions in the view of humans’ evolutionary need to belong to social groups Guilt strengthens social bonds: Guilt prevents people from doing things that would harm their relationships Displays of guilt demonstrate that people care Guilt can be used to manipulate others Socialization is more important than biology in determining how children experience guilt Embarrassment and blushing: Blushing rectiﬁes interpersonal awkwardness and restores social bonds after a transgression Communicates a realization of interpersonal errors, thereby repairing and maintaining relationships Crying A recent theory has proposed that crying is a form of social signaling that we are in distress This can lead to others oﬀering assistance and aid. Summary: Humans have developed many emotions in response to evolutionary pressures We can regonize emotions in others and express them to those around us Some emotions strengthen social bonds January 27 How We Experience Emotion Emotions have a: Physiological component Arousal– Physiological activation such as increased brain activity or increased awareness of environment or self Increased autonomic responses such as sweating, increased heart rate, muscle tension, dilated pupils. Subjective component Emotions are subjective – WE feel them Emotions can range from intense (mood disorders) or nonexistent (alexithymic) Cognitive component Two-factory theory of emotion A situation evokes a physiological response, such as arousal, and a cognitive interpretation or emotion label When people experience arousal, they initiate a search for its source. People can misattribute the source of emotional states When people misidentify the source of their arousal, it is called misattribution of arousal Emotions regulate our moods Emotions: Emotions are immediate, speciﬁc responses to environmental events Feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs. Two most important brain structures for emotion: amygdala and prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal Cortex: Right side: negative aﬀect activation Left side: positive aﬀect activation Types of Emotions Distinguishing among types of emotions: Basic or primary emotions are evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, and associated with speciﬁc biological and physical states. (fear, happiness, sadness, disgust, anger) Schachter and Singer (1962) Participants injected with epinephrine (adrenaline), some were told it was epinephrine, some told it was a vitamin They thing completed an invasive questionnaire Vitamin people were angry, epinephrine people said their reaction was due to the adrenaline They then watched a funny video Those given vitamins said the movies were much funnier than those given epinephrine People Regulate Their Moods Various strategies people use to regulate their emotions: Putting themselves into certain situations while avoiding others (Gross, 1999) Focusing on certain aspects of the situation Reappraising the events in more neutral or positive terms Humor Laughter stimulates endocrine secretion, improves the immune system, and stimulates the release of hormones, catecholamines, and endorphins Facial feedback hypothesis (Tomkins, 1963) A person’s facial expression triggers that emotion Can occur even when facial expression is forced Suppression and Rumination: Thought suppression Attempts to not feel ore respond to the emotion Very diﬃcult and can lead to a rebound eﬀect Rumination Thinking about, elaborating, focusing on undesired thoughts or feelings Prolongs the mood and impedes more successful strategies such as distracting oneself or focusing on solutions for the problem Developing Through the Life Span (ch 9) Human Development Biological and social forces combine to shape the path of human development Developmental psychology: the study of changes, over the life span, in physiology, cognition, emotion, and social behavior. Environment determines which of a person’s genes are expressed and how they are expressed Nature and nurture both play a role in developmental outcome Stages of Development Physically, each human grows and matures at about the same periods of life. Prenatal period: begins with conception and ends with birth Infancy: begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months Childhood: begins at the end of infancy and lasts until somewhere between ages 11 and 14 Adolescence: beings at the end of childhood and lasts until somewhere between 18 and 21 Adulthood: begins at the end of adolescence and lasts until death Development starts in the Womb: The process beings at the moment of conception, when sperm unites with the egg to create the zygote, the ﬁrst cell of a new life 2 weeks: Zygote is ﬁrmly implanted in the uterine wall; the next stage of development beings 2 weeks to 2 months: Developing human is known as an embryo; organs and internal systems begin to form After 2 months: Growing human is called a fetus; no new structures emerge after prenatal month 2; the fetus simply grows larger, stronger, and fatter, as the organs mature. Most healthy full-term pregnancies end with the birth of the baby between 38 and 42 weeks. Hormones and Teratogens During Prenatal Development Hormones that circulate in the womb inﬂuence the developing fetus The mother’s emotional state can also aﬀect the developing fetus Teratogens – environmental agents that harm the embryo or fetus drugs alcohol bacteria viruses chemicals The Competent Newborn Infants are born with reﬂects that aid in survival, including rooting reﬂex which helps them locate food rooting reﬂect: the turning and sucking that infants automatically engage in when a nipple or similar object touches an area near their mouths grasping reﬂex: some scholars believe this reﬂect is a survival mechanism that has persisted from our primate ancestors Oﬀspring cries are important signals for parents to provide nourishment. In animals and humans such cries are quickly attended to and relieved. Physical Development Developing Brain At birth, most brain cells are present. After birth, the neural networks multiply resulting in increased physical and mental abilities. Maturation Dynamic systems theory: the view that development is a self-organizing process, where new forms of behavior emerge through consistent interactions between a biological being and its cultural and environmental contexts. The development of the brain unfolds based on genetic instructions, causing various bodily and mental functions to occur in sequence – standing before walking, babbling before talking – this is called maturation Maturation sets the basic course of development, while experience adjusts it. Perception The development of infants’ sensory capacities allows infants to observe and evaluate the objects and events around them Infants then use the information gained from perception to try an make sense of how the world works. Motor Development First, infants being to roll over. Next, they sit unsupported, crawl, and ﬁnally walk. Experience has little eﬀect on this sequence. Maturation and Infant Memory The earliest age of conscious memory is around 3 1/2 years (Bauer, 2002). A 5 year old has a sense of self and an increased long-term memory, thus organization of memory is diﬀerent from 3- 4 years. Myelination and Neuronal Connections Myelin sheath: fatty material that is the brain’s way of insulating its “wires" Mylineation begins on the spinal cord during the ﬁrst trimester of pregnancy and on the neurons during the second trimester The brain organizes itself in response to its environmental experiences, preserving connections it needs in order to function in a given context Synaptic pruning: a process whereby the synaptic connection sin the brain that are used are preserved, and those that are not used are lost, e.g. “use it or lose it" Sensitive Learning Periods Certain connections are made most easily during particular times in development, as long as the brain receives the right stimuli Sensitive periods: time periods when speciﬁc skills develop more easily Language is one skill that is easier to learn during early sensitive periods when the brain is more plastic (the ﬁrst 5-10 years) The emergence of close emotional attachments with caregivers is another example of a developmental milestone most easily acquired in the early sensitive periods of infancy Jean Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Through careful examination of children, Piaget developed a theory of the stages children go through in early childhood Piaget believed that the driving force behind intellectual development is our biological development amidst experiences with the environment. Our cognitive development is shaped by the errors we make. Assimilation and Accommodation Schema: cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process, and use information Assimilation: the process by which we add new information to an existing schema Accommodation: the process by which we create a new schema or drastically alter an existing scheme to include new information
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