Anatomy and Physiology Week 1 Notes
Anatomy and Physiology Week 1 Notes BIOL 2020-002
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Fairrow-Davis on Saturday January 30, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2020-002 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dr. Vincent Cobb in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 161 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 01/30/16
The Circulatory System: The Heart I. Parts of the Circulatory System A. Heart B. Blood Vessels C. Blood II. Cardiovascular System A. Parts 1) Heart 2) Arteries a) Vessels that carry blood away from the heart 3) Veins a) Vessels that carry blood to the heart 4) Capillaries a) Where exchange of fluid occurs between the blood and tissues B. Circuits of the Heart 1) Pulmonary Circuit a) Right side of the heart b) Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs for gas exchange then returns oxygenated blood to the heart i. Blood leaves the right ventricle through the pulmonary trunk/pulmonary arteries ii. Blood returns through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium 2) Systemic Circuit a) Left side of the heart b) Supplies oxygenated blood to all organs of the body i. Blood leaves the left ventricle through the aorta ii. Blood returns through the superior and inferior vena cave into the right atrium III. Size, Shape, and Position of the Heart A. Located in the mediastinum 1) A rectangular block of tissue that resides between the lungs and the diaphragm B. Areas of the Heart 1) Base a) Broad SUPERIOR portion of the heart 2) Apex a) Inferior end b) Points to the left C. Heart weighs about 8-10 ounces IV. The Pericardium A. The pericardium is a double-walled sac that encloses the heart B. Allows the heart to beat without interfering with other thoracic organs, but it also gives it room to expand C. Consists of three parts 1) Parietal Pericardium (outer layer) a) Consists of two layers i. Fibrous layer (outer layer) Tough layer that consists of lots of collagen with some elastin fibers ii. Serous Layer Simple squamous epithelial Produces pericardial fluid Flips over on itself near the base of the heart to form the visceral pericardium 2) Pericardial Cavity a) Lies in between the parietal and visceral pericardium b) Filled with 5-30 ml of pericardial fluid 3) Visceral Pericardium a) AKA epicardium b) Thin, smooth, wet serous layer c) Covers the heart’s surface d) Part of the heart wall V. The Heart Wall A. 3 Layers 1) Visceral Pericardium (epicardium) a) External heart surface 2) Myocardium (middle layer) a) Thick muscular Layer b) Made of collagen and elastin c) Functions i. Provides structural support ii. Provides attachment for cardiac muscle iii. Is a nonconductor which is important in coordinating contractions d) Tends to be thicker in the ventricles than in the atria e) Filled with cardiocytes 3) Endocardium (inner most layer) a) Made of squamous epithelial VI. Heart Chambers A. 4 Chambers 1) Right and Left Atria a) 2 superior chambers b) Receive blood returning to the heart 2) Right and Left Ventricles a) 2 inferior chambers b) Receive blood from the atria c) Pump blood into the Arteries B. Chamber Boundaries (all contain arteries and veins 1) The Coronary/Atrioventricular Sulcus a) Separates atria and ventricles 2) Anterior and Posterior sulci a) Separates the ventricles on the surface VII. Parts of the Heart A. Auricle 1) Fleshy material that encases the atria B. Pectinate Muscles 1) C. Papillary Muscle 1) Found on the floor of the ventricles 2) Prevents a valve of the heart from falling out of place D. Interventricular Septum 1) Separates the ventricles on the inside of the heart E. Chordae Tendinae 1) AKA heart strings 2) Keeps the valves between the atria and ventricles closed 3) Also connects the AV valves to the papillary muscles F. Trabeculae Carneae 1) Internal ridges found in the ventricles G. Interatrial Septum 1) Wall that separates the two atria VIII. Heart Valves A. Purpose 1) To enforce one direction blood flow B. Two types of Valves 1) Atrioventricular Valves (AV) a) 2 Valves i. Tricuspid Valve This is the right Atrioventricular valve Found between the right atrium and ventricle ii. Bicuspid Valve AKA the mitral/left AV Valve Found between the left atrium and ventricle b) Valve Mechanics i. Ventricles Relax Pressure Drops Semilunar valves close AV valves open Blood flows from atria to ventricles ii. Ventricles Contract Pressure Rises AV valves close o Papillary muscle contracts and pulls on chordae tendinae to prevent prolapse Semilunar Valves open Blood flows into arteries 2) Semilunar Valves a) Control the flow into great arteries b) Two Valves i. Pulmonary Semilunar Valve From right ventricle into the pulmonary trunk ii. Aortic Semilunar Valve From left ventricle into the aorta C. Heart Valves and Fibrous Skeleton 1) Structural Support for heart 2) Provides place for muscle attachment 3) Non-conducting separation between atria and ventricles IX. Blood Flow Through The Heart A. (1)Blood enters the right atrium from the superior and inferior vena cava B. (2)Blood goes through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle C. (3)A contraction forces the pulmonary semilunar valve to open D. (4)Blood then goes through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary trunk E. (5)Blood goes either to the right or left pulmonary artery to the lungs where it exchanges CO for2O 2 F. (6)Blood comes back to the lungs and into the left atrium through the pulmonary veins G. (7)Blood then goes from the left atrium into the left ventricle though the bicuspid valve H. (8)The same contraction as number 3 forces the aortic valve to open I. (9)Blood flows from the left ventricle into the aortic semilunar valve into the aorta J. (10) Blood goes to rest of the body trading O for CO 2 2 K. (11)Blood comes back into the right atrium through the inferior and superior vena cava X. Coronary Circulation A. This is the cardiac muscle’s supply of blood vessels from the heart wall B. About 3% of the blood from the heart goes to these blood vessels C. Two Branches from the left coronary artery 1) The Anterior interventricular branch 2) The Circumflex branch D. Two Branches from the right coronary artery 1) The right marginal branch 2) The posterior interventricular branch E. Veins 1) Great Cardiac Vein All of these veins empty into 2) Middle Cardiac Vein the Coronary Sinus which 3) Small Cardiac Vein then empties into the right XI. Coronary Clinical Aspects atrium A. Anastomoses 1) A surgical connection between two blood vessels B. Angina pectoris 1) Chest pain because of coronary heart disease C. Myocardial infarction 1) Heart Attack D. Angioplasty 1) The unblocking of a blood vessel through surgery E. Stent 1) A small, mesh tube that’s used to treat/unblock small/weak arteries F. Coronary Bypass 1) A procedure that restores blood flow to your heart muscle by diverting the flow of blood around a section of a blocked artery in your heart. XII. Structure of Cardiac Muscle A. Short, thick, branched cells with 1 or 2 central nucei B. Parts 1) Sarcoplasmic Reticulum a) Stores Calcium 2) Intercalated Discs a) Join the myocytes b) Interdigitating folds increase surface area c) Desmosomes tightly join myocytes d) Gap junctions form channels allowing ions to flow directly into the next cell i. Electrical junctions XIII. Metabolism of Cardiac Muscle A. Uses aerobic respiration only 1) Meaning it’s lactic acid resistant B. Rich in myoglobin 1) An oxygen storing protein C. Large and numerous in mitochondria D. Fatigue resistant XIV. Cardiac Conduction System A. Myogenic 1) Heartbeat originates within the heart B. Autorhythmic 1) Spontaneous and rhythmic C. Conduction System 1) Sinoatrial Node (SA Node) a) Initiates heartbeat and sets heart rate b) Found in the right atrium under the epicardium 2) Atrioventricular (AV) node a) Electrical gateway to ventricles b) Located by the lower end of the interatrial septum c) Fibrous skeleton insulates atria from ventricles* 3) AV bundle a) Pathway for signals from the AV node 4) Right and Left Bundle Branches a) Divisions of the AV bundle that enter the interventricular septum and descend to apex * In the power point slides, He has this under SA node but the book has it with the AV node 5) Purkinje Fibers a) Arise from the lower end of the bundle branches that turn upward and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium XV. Cardiac Rhythm A. Systole 1) Contraction B. Diastole 1) Relaxation C. Sinus Rhythm 1) Normal Heartbeat 2) Set by SA node a) Without Vagus nerve (X), the heart would beat at 100 beats a minute, but instead beats at about 60 to 80 beats a minute at rest D. Ectopic Foci 1) Region of spontaneous firing a) Nodal rhythm i. Set by the AV node On its own, the AV node beats at about 40-60 beats a minute b) Intrinsic Ventricular Rhythm i. 20-40 beats per minute E. Arrhythmia 1) Abnormal cardiac rhythm 2) Heart block a) Failure of conduction system F. Atrial fibrillation 1) Most common type of arrhythmia
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