PSYC 2010- Chapter 5 Notes
PSYC 2010- Chapter 5 Notes Psyc 2010-003
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
Reviews for PSYC 2010- Chapter 5 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter Five Variations in Consciousness Consciousness is being aware of external and internal stimuli. It includes external events, which is anything that goes on around you, and internal events, which is anything that is going on with your body such as sweating or your heart racing. It also includes self-‐awareness, which is how you feel like you are unique because of experiences that you have. The last thing it includes is your thoughts that you have about experiences. It is essentially personal awareness. Sigmund Freud was one of the first psychologists to say that consciousness has different levels (levels of awareness). Patients who are under anesthesia for surgery can still pick up on some of the comments made by the nurses. People, who are asleep, such as parents of a newborn baby, can hear their baby slightly crying down the hallway in the middle of the night, and they will wake up. Some stimuli are able to penetrate awareness during unconscious. Activity among neural networks in the brain is the cause of consciousness. An EEG (electroencephalograph) monitors brain activity by using electrodes attached to the scalp. It is able to summarize brain activity using line tracings of brain waves. Amplitude and frequency varies amongst brain waves. They are divided into beta (normal thought while awake, problem solving), alpha (relaxation, blank mind, meditation), theta (light sleep), and delta (deep sleep). Variations in consciousness are associated with variations in brain activity. It has been thought that a subcortical area in the brain might influence them both. Circadian rhythms are 24-‐hour biological cycles. They are found in humans as well as other species. In humans they influence regulation processes, including sleep. People are more likely to fall asleep when their body temperature drops, and more likely to wake up when their body temperature increases again. Circadian rhythms cause individuals to fall asleep more easily during a certain time of the day. This will vary from person to person (night person or morning person). Ignoring your circadian rhythm and going to sleep at a different hour than “normal” will cause you to not sleep as well. This is why jet lag is a problem. Shift work can also affect a person’s circadian rhythm, and this is even harder to recover from than jet lag because it happens more on a regular basis. As age increases it gets harder to recover from disrupting your biological clock. Melatonin has been used to reduce the effects of jet lag, but it not always helpful. There are characteristic brain waves for each stage of sleep. Ordinary wakefulness has waves that are fast with a low amplitude (beta). Relaxed wakefulness has very rhythmic alpha waves. Stage N1 of sleep has small, irregular waves. Stage N2 of sleep has spindle shaped waves (sheep spindles). Stage N3 of sleep has large, slow moving waves (delta). REM sleep has waves that are very similar to ordinary wakefulness waves. Researchers consider someone asleep whenever their alpha waves become theta waves. Stage N1 is the time when you are trying to fall asleep. It is influenced by many things, but usually lasts from 10-‐12 minutes. During stage N2 and N3 a lot of levels (heart rate, temperature) start to decrease. Stage N2 is about 10-‐25 minutes. This is the stage of light sleep. Stage N3 is considered deep sleep and lasts for about 20-‐40 minutes. The sleeper will then go to stage called REM sleep. This stage is known for rapid eye movements, high-‐frequency brain waves, and dreaming. Dreams are more vivid here than in other stage of sleep. The sleeper is essentially paralyzed during this stage of sleep. REM sleep usually occurs around 4 times per night. They start out shorter, and then gradually get longer. N3 usually occurs at the beginning of the sleep cycle, and REM sleep is mostly towards the end. Adults usually spend the least amount of time in N1, the most about of time in N2, and roughly the same amount of time in N3 and REM. REM is a little bit more than N3. Many Americans experience sleep deprivation. It is thought to influence one’s social skills and performance in the work place. Partial sleep deprivation is when someone tries to function with less than the normal amount of sleep for a period of time. This can harm a person’s attention, reaction time, motor coordination, and decision-‐ making. It can also have negative effects on the immune and endocrine systems. Selective sleep deprivation is when a person gets a normal amount of sleep in the non-‐REM stages, but doesn’t get as much time in the REM stage of sleep as they should. This doesn’t have many effects during the daytime, but it makes the person go to the REM stage more often when they are sleeping to make up for the time that they lost the other nights. REM sleep and deep sleep (slow wave sleep) are very important to our health. It has been thought that during theses times we finish up some of the learning that occurred during the day (memory consolidation). REM sleep may also influence someone’s creativity. REM sleep and deep sleep are important in our decision making process. Sleep Disorders • Insomnia-‐ most common. Person has a hard time falling asleep, staying asleep, and they usually wake up really early. This causes them to be fatigued during the day and not function as well. Most people use over the counter medicines for this problem, but they have some negative aspects. There are therapeutic things for people who suffer from this. • Narcolepsy-‐ the person goes directly from being awake to REM sleep. Sometimes they can just fall asleep instantly. This is usually caused by not getting enough REM sleep in the first place. Stimulant drugs can be used to treat this condition. • Sleep apnea-‐ the person is awaken in the night because they are gasping for air. This is associated with a lot of overweight people. Making lifestyle changes, or using equipment at night like special sleep masks or oral devices can help this condition. • Somnambulism (sleepwalking)-‐ the person walks around while still asleep. It usually occurs during the first 3 hours of sleep. The person might wake up while sleepwalking, or they could return to their bed and not remember that it happened. It is associated with sleep deprivation and stress. • Night terrors (REM sleep behavior disorder-‐ RBD)-‐ the person has very troublesome dreams during REM sleep. The person could yell, jump out of bed, or gesture while sleeping. They usually say that they were being chased or attacked in their dream. The cause of this is deterioration of the structures that cause someone to be paralyzed during REM sleep. This could increase the person’s risk of Parkinson’s disease. Many people only remember the exciting, scary, or exotic dreams. Most dreams are actually pretty boring, though. They just aren’t remembered as much. Most people dream about themselves and the dreams are filled with friends and family. The things that are going on in your life tends to spill over into your dreams. In modern Western society dreams are thought to have very little significance on waking life. They are thought to be meaningless. In non-‐Western cultures dreams are thought to be significant to waking life. They are viewed as important information about oneself. Sometimes people are even held responsible for things that happen in dreams. There are different theories on why dreams happen. One theory is wish fulfillment (Freud). This means that people dream about things in their life that they want to happen, but don’t. Another theory is problem solving (Cartwright). This means that dreams happen so that a person can reflect on recent experiences that were emotional for them. It is thought in this theory that people are able to solve problems because dreams are not restrained by logic. The last theory is the activation-‐synthesis model (Hobson). This theory states that dreams are a side effect of the production of beta waves during REM sleep. This theory leaves out any emotional factors for dreaming. Hypnosis is a procedure that causes a greater state of suggestibility. It can also cause relaxation and narrowed attention. The hypnotist describes different bodily sensations that should be occurring to the client and eventually this is what makes them become hypnotized. Some people respond really well to this procedure, and others don’t. Hypnosis can be used in the treatment of pain, it has been known to cause hallucinations, it causes people to not feel like they will be held responsible for their actions, so they will do things they normally would not do. It can also influence what the person does after the hypnosis is over. This would be like a subject not remembering the hypnosis even happened because the hypnotist told them not to. There has not been any brain changes found that are specific to hypnosis. This led to one of the theories of role-‐playing. This theory believes that the subject acts the way that they do during hypnosis because that is the way they are expected to act rather than them going through some kind of trance. Situational factors may lead the subject to act out a certain role extremely well, such as being told to reenact one of their childhood birthdays. Other theorists think that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness. They believe that there is a dissociation (split) between two states of awareness. He thinks that subjects may seem unresponsive to pain because the state of awareness that experiences the pain is not visible to other people. Altered Consciousness with Drugs • Narcotics (opiates)-‐ these are used medically for pain relief-‐ the desired effects are relaxation, euphoria, and reduced stressed. Some side effects include drowsiness, nausea, constipation, and impaired functions. Some examples of these are morphine, heroin, and oxycodone • Sedatives-‐ these are used medically as sleeping pills-‐ the desired effects are the same as narcotics as well as reduced inhibitions. The side effects are similar to those of narcotics as well as emotional swings and dejection. Some examples include barbiturates and nonbarbiturates. • Stimulants-‐ these are used medically for treating hyperactivity and narcolepsy-‐ desired effects are elation, excitement, increased alertness and energy. Some side effects include increased blood pressure and heart rate as well as irritability, insomnia, and increased bodily fluids such are urination and sweating. Some examples include amphetamines and cocaine. • Hallucinogens-‐ these are not used medically-‐ desired effects are increased senses, euphoria and hallucinations. Some side effects include dilated pupils, nausea, mood swings, paranoia and impaired judgment. Some examples include LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. • Cannabis-‐ these are used medically for treating glaucoma and some chemotherapy-‐ desired effects are relaxation and altered perceptions. Some side effects include elevated heart rate, bloodshot eyes, reduced short term memory, and sluggish mental functioning. Some examples include marijuana, hashish, and THC • Alcohol-‐ this is not used for medical purposes-‐ desired effects are relaxation and reduced anxiety. Some side effects are impaired reaction time and mental functioning, and also mood swings. The way that a drug affects a person depends on many different factors, such as age, tolerance, weight, mood, motivation, etc. Tolerance increases as a person uses the drug more often. It causes people to consume more of it because that’s what it takes to get the desired effects. Drugs have multiple effects on neurotransmitter activity. All drugs are thought to eventually increase activity in the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. Some people become physically dependent on drugs. This is common with alcohol, narcotics, and sedatives. This is when a person has to continue taking the drug in order to not go through withdrawals. Another type of dependence is psychological dependence. This is when the person has to continue taking the drug to fulfill a mental or emotional craving. This happens a lot with cocaine users. Overdosing on drugs can be very fatal. Overdosing on depressants can cause a coma, brain damage, and it could also lead to death. Overdosing on stimulates can cause heart attacks, strokes, or seizures. Drugs can cause direct effects, and also indirect effects. Some direct effects include nasal membrane damage from cocaine, liver damage from alcohol, and respiratory problems from crack smoking. Some indirect effects include not eating or sleeping properly, or tripping and falling down stairs. Personal Application-‐ Addressing Practical Questions about Sleep & Dreams • Most people would be able to function more effectively if they increased their amount of sleep, but the lowest mortality rates come from getting 7-‐8 hours a night • Naps can be beneficial depending on the person, the time of day the nap is taken, and the amount of REM sleep obtained during the nap • Naps are also thought to improve memory and learning • Snoring is associated with obesity, smoking, and allergies-‐ a lot of people don’t realize the health problems associated with it • Not taking naps, exercising during the day, and not drinking a lot of caffeine right before bed can improve your sleep • It is good to go to bed around the same time every night-‐ also make sure that the conditions you are sleeping in fit your needs • Try not to think about stressful things while trying to fall asleep • Melatonin has been known to help people sleep-‐ alcohol does too but it disrupts the REM stage • Everyone dreams, some people just don’t remember their dreams. People who wake up more in the middle of the night are thought to remember their dreams more • The manifest content is the surface interpretation of a dream • The latent content is the much deeper interpretation or hidden meaning of the dream Some information found from: Weiten, Wayne. Psychology: Themes and Variations. Boston: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'