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PSYC 2010- Chapter 5 Notes

by: Morgan Dimery

PSYC 2010- Chapter 5 Notes Psyc 2010-003

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Morgan Dimery

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These notes cover the material on the knowledge checklist that's under chapter 5. This stuff will be our on first exam (which is this Thursday!!)
Introduction to Psychology
Edwin G. Brainerd
Class Notes
PSYC, Psychology
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Dimery on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010-003 at Clemson University taught by Edwin G. Brainerd in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter  Five   Variations  in  Consciousness     Consciousness  is  being  aware  of  external  and  internal  stimuli.  It  includes  external   events,  which  is  anything  that  goes  on  around  you,  and  internal  events,  which  is   anything  that  is  going  on  with  your  body  such  as  sweating  or  your  heart  racing.  It   also  includes  self-­‐awareness,  which  is  how  you  feel  like  you  are  unique  because  of   experiences  that  you  have.  The  last  thing  it  includes  is  your  thoughts  that  you  have   about  experiences.  It  is  essentially  personal  awareness.       Sigmund  Freud  was  one  of  the  first  psychologists  to  say  that  consciousness  has   different  levels  (levels  of  awareness).  Patients  who  are  under  anesthesia  for  surgery   can  still  pick  up  on  some  of  the  comments  made  by  the  nurses.  People,  who  are   asleep,  such  as  parents  of  a  newborn  baby,  can  hear  their  baby  slightly  crying  down   the  hallway  in  the  middle  of  the  night,  and  they  will  wake  up.  Some  stimuli  are  able   to  penetrate  awareness  during  unconscious.     Activity  among  neural  networks  in  the  brain  is  the  cause  of  consciousness.  An  EEG   (electroencephalograph)  monitors  brain  activity  by  using  electrodes  attached  to  the   scalp.  It  is  able  to  summarize  brain  activity  using  line  tracings  of  brain  waves.   Amplitude  and  frequency  varies  amongst  brain  waves.  They  are  divided  into  beta   (normal  thought  while  awake,  problem  solving),  alpha  (relaxation,  blank  mind,   meditation),  theta  (light  sleep),  and  delta  (deep  sleep).  Variations  in  consciousness   are  associated  with  variations  in  brain  activity.  It  has  been  thought  that  a  subcortical   area  in  the  brain  might  influence  them  both.        Circadian  rhythms  are  24-­‐hour  biological  cycles.  They  are  found  in  humans  as  well   as  other  species.  In  humans  they  influence  regulation  processes,  including  sleep.   People  are  more  likely  to  fall  asleep  when  their  body  temperature  drops,  and  more   likely  to  wake  up  when  their  body  temperature  increases  again.  Circadian  rhythms   cause  individuals  to  fall  asleep  more  easily  during  a  certain  time  of  the  day.  This  will   vary  from  person  to  person  (night  person  or  morning  person).  Ignoring  your   circadian  rhythm  and  going  to  sleep  at  a  different  hour  than  “normal”  will  cause  you   to  not  sleep  as  well.  This  is  why  jet  lag  is  a  problem.  Shift  work  can  also  affect  a   person’s  circadian  rhythm,  and  this  is  even  harder  to  recover  from  than  jet  lag   because  it  happens  more  on  a  regular  basis.  As  age  increases  it  gets  harder  to   recover  from  disrupting  your  biological  clock.  Melatonin  has  been  used  to  reduce   the  effects  of  jet  lag,  but  it  not  always  helpful.       There  are  characteristic  brain  waves  for  each  stage  of  sleep.  Ordinary  wakefulness   has  waves  that  are  fast  with  a  low  amplitude  (beta).  Relaxed  wakefulness  has  very   rhythmic  alpha  waves.  Stage  N1  of  sleep  has  small,  irregular  waves.  Stage  N2  of   sleep  has  spindle  shaped  waves  (sheep  spindles).  Stage  N3  of  sleep  has  large,  slow   moving  waves  (delta).  REM  sleep  has  waves  that  are  very  similar  to  ordinary   wakefulness  waves.  Researchers  consider  someone  asleep  whenever  their  alpha   waves  become  theta  waves.  Stage  N1  is  the  time  when  you  are  trying  to  fall  asleep.  It   is  influenced  by  many  things,  but  usually  lasts  from  10-­‐12  minutes.  During  stage  N2   and  N3  a  lot  of  levels  (heart  rate,  temperature)  start  to  decrease.  Stage  N2  is  about   10-­‐25  minutes.  This  is  the  stage  of  light  sleep.  Stage  N3  is  considered  deep  sleep  and   lasts  for  about  20-­‐40  minutes.  The  sleeper  will  then  go  to  stage  called  REM  sleep.   This  stage  is  known  for  rapid  eye  movements,  high-­‐frequency  brain  waves,  and   dreaming.  Dreams  are  more  vivid  here  than  in  other  stage  of  sleep.  The  sleeper  is   essentially  paralyzed  during  this  stage  of  sleep.  REM  sleep  usually  occurs  around  4   times  per  night.  They  start  out  shorter,  and  then  gradually  get  longer.  N3  usually   occurs  at  the  beginning  of  the  sleep  cycle,  and  REM  sleep  is  mostly  towards  the  end.   Adults  usually  spend  the  least  amount  of  time  in  N1,  the  most  about  of  time  in  N2,   and  roughly  the  same  amount  of  time  in  N3  and  REM.  REM  is  a  little  bit  more  than   N3.       Many  Americans  experience  sleep  deprivation.  It  is  thought  to  influence  one’s  social   skills  and  performance  in  the  work  place.  Partial  sleep  deprivation  is  when  someone   tries  to  function  with  less  than  the  normal  amount  of  sleep  for  a  period  of  time.  This   can  harm  a  person’s  attention,  reaction  time,  motor  coordination,  and  decision-­‐ making.  It  can  also  have  negative  effects  on  the  immune  and  endocrine  systems.   Selective  sleep  deprivation  is  when  a  person  gets  a  normal  amount  of  sleep  in  the   non-­‐REM  stages,  but  doesn’t  get  as  much  time  in  the  REM  stage  of  sleep  as  they   should.  This  doesn’t  have  many  effects  during  the  daytime,  but  it  makes  the  person   go  to  the  REM  stage  more  often  when  they  are  sleeping  to  make  up  for  the  time  that   they  lost  the  other  nights.  REM  sleep  and  deep  sleep  (slow  wave  sleep)  are  very   important  to  our  health.  It  has  been  thought  that  during  theses  times  we  finish  up   some  of  the  learning  that  occurred  during  the  day  (memory  consolidation).  REM   sleep  may  also  influence  someone’s  creativity.  REM  sleep  and  deep  sleep  are   important  in  our  decision  making  process.       Sleep  Disorders     • Insomnia-­‐  most  common.  Person  has  a  hard  time  falling  asleep,  staying   asleep,  and  they  usually  wake  up  really  early.  This  causes  them  to  be  fatigued   during  the  day  and  not  function  as  well.  Most  people  use  over  the  counter   medicines  for  this  problem,  but  they  have  some  negative  aspects.  There  are   therapeutic  things  for  people  who  suffer  from  this.     • Narcolepsy-­‐  the  person  goes  directly  from  being  awake  to  REM  sleep.   Sometimes  they  can  just  fall  asleep  instantly.  This  is  usually  caused  by  not   getting  enough  REM  sleep  in  the  first  place.  Stimulant  drugs  can  be  used  to   treat  this  condition.     • Sleep  apnea-­‐  the  person  is  awaken  in  the  night  because  they  are  gasping  for   air.  This  is  associated  with  a  lot  of  overweight  people.  Making  lifestyle   changes,  or  using  equipment  at  night  like  special  sleep  masks  or  oral  devices   can  help  this  condition.   • Somnambulism  (sleepwalking)-­‐  the  person  walks  around  while  still  asleep.  It   usually  occurs  during  the  first  3  hours  of  sleep.  The  person  might  wake  up   while  sleepwalking,  or  they  could  return  to  their  bed  and  not  remember  that   it  happened.  It  is  associated  with  sleep  deprivation  and  stress.   • Night  terrors  (REM  sleep  behavior  disorder-­‐  RBD)-­‐  the  person  has  very   troublesome  dreams  during  REM  sleep.  The  person  could  yell,  jump  out  of   bed,  or  gesture  while  sleeping.  They  usually  say  that  they  were  being  chased   or  attacked  in  their  dream.  The  cause  of  this  is  deterioration  of  the  structures   that  cause  someone  to  be  paralyzed  during  REM  sleep.  This  could  increase   the  person’s  risk  of  Parkinson’s  disease.       Many  people  only  remember  the  exciting,  scary,  or  exotic  dreams.  Most  dreams  are   actually  pretty  boring,  though.  They  just  aren’t  remembered  as  much.  Most  people   dream  about  themselves  and  the  dreams  are  filled  with  friends  and  family.  The   things  that  are  going  on  in  your  life  tends  to  spill  over  into  your  dreams.  In  modern   Western  society  dreams  are  thought  to  have  very  little  significance  on  waking  life.   They  are  thought  to  be  meaningless.  In  non-­‐Western  cultures  dreams  are  thought  to   be  significant  to  waking  life.  They  are  viewed  as  important  information  about   oneself.  Sometimes  people  are  even  held  responsible  for  things  that  happen  in   dreams.  There  are  different  theories  on  why  dreams  happen.  One  theory  is  wish   fulfillment  (Freud).  This  means  that  people  dream  about  things  in  their  life  that  they   want  to  happen,  but  don’t.    Another  theory  is  problem  solving  (Cartwright).  This   means  that  dreams  happen  so  that  a  person  can  reflect  on  recent  experiences  that   were  emotional  for  them.  It  is  thought  in  this  theory  that  people  are  able  to  solve   problems  because  dreams  are  not  restrained  by  logic.  The  last  theory  is  the   activation-­‐synthesis  model  (Hobson).  This  theory  states  that  dreams  are  a  side   effect  of  the  production  of  beta  waves  during  REM  sleep.  This  theory  leaves  out  any   emotional  factors  for  dreaming.       Hypnosis  is  a  procedure  that  causes  a  greater  state  of  suggestibility.  It  can  also  cause   relaxation  and  narrowed  attention.  The  hypnotist  describes  different  bodily   sensations  that  should  be  occurring  to  the  client  and  eventually  this  is  what  makes   them  become  hypnotized.  Some  people  respond  really  well  to  this  procedure,  and   others  don’t.  Hypnosis  can  be  used  in  the  treatment  of  pain,  it  has  been  known  to   cause  hallucinations,  it  causes  people  to  not  feel  like  they  will  be  held  responsible   for  their  actions,  so  they  will  do  things  they  normally  would  not  do.  It  can  also   influence  what  the  person  does  after  the  hypnosis  is  over.  This  would  be  like  a   subject  not  remembering  the  hypnosis  even  happened  because  the  hypnotist  told   them  not  to.  There  has  not  been  any  brain  changes  found  that  are  specific  to   hypnosis.  This  led  to  one  of  the  theories  of  role-­‐playing.  This  theory  believes  that  the   subject  acts  the  way  that  they  do  during  hypnosis  because  that  is  the  way  they  are   expected  to  act  rather  than  them  going  through  some  kind  of  trance.  Situational   factors  may  lead  the  subject  to  act  out  a  certain  role  extremely  well,  such  as  being   told  to  reenact  one  of  their  childhood  birthdays.  Other  theorists  think  that  hypnosis   is  an  altered  state  of  consciousness.  They  believe  that  there  is  a  dissociation  (split)   between  two  states  of  awareness.  He  thinks  that  subjects  may  seem  unresponsive  to   pain  because  the  state  of  awareness  that  experiences  the  pain  is  not  visible  to  other   people.       Altered  Consciousness  with  Drugs     • Narcotics  (opiates)-­‐  these  are  used  medically  for  pain  relief-­‐  the  desired   effects  are  relaxation,  euphoria,  and  reduced  stressed.  Some  side  effects   include  drowsiness,  nausea,  constipation,  and  impaired  functions.  Some   examples  of  these  are  morphine,  heroin,  and  oxycodone   • Sedatives-­‐  these  are  used  medically  as  sleeping  pills-­‐  the  desired  effects  are   the  same  as  narcotics  as  well  as  reduced  inhibitions.  The  side  effects  are   similar  to  those  of  narcotics  as  well  as  emotional  swings  and  dejection.  Some   examples  include  barbiturates  and  nonbarbiturates.     • Stimulants-­‐  these  are  used  medically  for  treating  hyperactivity  and   narcolepsy-­‐  desired  effects  are  elation,  excitement,  increased  alertness  and   energy.  Some  side  effects  include  increased  blood  pressure  and  heart  rate  as   well  as  irritability,  insomnia,  and  increased  bodily  fluids  such  are  urination   and  sweating.  Some  examples  include  amphetamines  and  cocaine.     • Hallucinogens-­‐  these  are  not  used  medically-­‐  desired  effects  are  increased   senses,  euphoria  and  hallucinations.  Some  side  effects  include  dilated  pupils,   nausea,  mood  swings,  paranoia  and  impaired  judgment.  Some  examples   include  LSD,  mescaline,  and  psilocybin.     • Cannabis-­‐  these  are  used  medically  for  treating  glaucoma  and  some   chemotherapy-­‐  desired  effects  are  relaxation  and  altered  perceptions.  Some   side  effects  include  elevated  heart  rate,  bloodshot  eyes,  reduced  short  term   memory,  and  sluggish  mental  functioning.    Some  examples  include   marijuana,  hashish,  and  THC   • Alcohol-­‐  this  is  not  used  for  medical  purposes-­‐  desired  effects  are  relaxation   and  reduced  anxiety.  Some  side  effects  are  impaired  reaction  time  and   mental  functioning,  and  also  mood  swings.       The  way  that  a  drug  affects  a  person  depends  on  many  different  factors,  such  as  age,   tolerance,  weight,  mood,  motivation,  etc.  Tolerance  increases  as  a  person  uses  the   drug  more  often.  It  causes  people  to  consume  more  of  it  because  that’s  what  it  takes   to  get  the  desired  effects.  Drugs  have  multiple  effects  on  neurotransmitter  activity.   All  drugs  are  thought  to  eventually  increase  activity  in  the  mesolimbic  dopamine   pathway.  Some  people  become  physically  dependent  on  drugs.  This  is  common  with   alcohol,  narcotics,  and  sedatives.  This  is  when  a  person  has  to  continue  taking  the   drug  in  order  to  not  go  through  withdrawals.  Another  type  of  dependence  is   psychological  dependence.  This  is  when  the  person  has  to  continue  taking  the  drug   to  fulfill  a  mental  or  emotional  craving.  This  happens  a  lot  with  cocaine  users.   Overdosing  on  drugs  can  be  very  fatal.  Overdosing  on  depressants  can  cause  a  coma,   brain  damage,  and  it  could  also  lead  to  death.  Overdosing  on  stimulates  can  cause   heart  attacks,  strokes,  or  seizures.  Drugs  can  cause  direct  effects,  and  also  indirect   effects.  Some  direct  effects  include  nasal  membrane  damage  from  cocaine,  liver   damage  from  alcohol,  and  respiratory  problems  from  crack  smoking.  Some  indirect   effects  include  not  eating  or  sleeping  properly,  or  tripping  and  falling  down  stairs.       Personal  Application-­‐  Addressing  Practical  Questions  about  Sleep  &  Dreams     • Most  people  would  be  able  to  function  more  effectively  if  they  increased  their   amount  of  sleep,  but  the  lowest  mortality  rates  come  from  getting  7-­‐8  hours  a   night   • Naps  can  be  beneficial  depending  on  the  person,  the  time  of  day  the  nap  is   taken,  and  the  amount  of  REM  sleep  obtained  during  the  nap   • Naps  are  also  thought  to  improve  memory  and  learning   • Snoring  is  associated  with  obesity,  smoking,  and  allergies-­‐  a  lot  of  people   don’t  realize  the  health  problems  associated  with  it     • Not  taking  naps,  exercising  during  the  day,  and  not  drinking  a  lot  of  caffeine   right  before  bed  can  improve  your  sleep   • It  is  good  to  go  to  bed  around  the  same  time  every  night-­‐  also  make  sure  that   the  conditions  you  are  sleeping  in  fit  your  needs     • Try  not  to  think  about  stressful  things  while  trying  to  fall  asleep     • Melatonin  has  been  known  to  help  people  sleep-­‐  alcohol  does  too  but  it   disrupts  the  REM  stage   • Everyone  dreams,  some  people  just  don’t  remember  their  dreams.  People   who  wake  up  more  in  the  middle  of  the  night  are  thought  to  remember  their   dreams  more   • The  manifest  content  is  the  surface  interpretation  of  a  dream   • The  latent  content  is  the  much  deeper  interpretation  or  hidden  meaning  of   the  dream                                     Some  information  found  from:     Weiten,  Wayne.  Psychology:  Themes  and  Variations.  Boston:  Cengage  Learning,  2014.   Print.    


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