New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Microbiology week 2

by: UNT_Scientist

Microbiology week 2 Biol 2041


Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover chapters 2 and 3.
Daniel Kunz
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Microbiology

Popular in Biology

This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by UNT_Scientist on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 2041 at University of North Texas taught by Daniel Kunz in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of North Texas.


Reviews for Microbiology week 2


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/31/16
Microbiology  Kunz Week 2  January 25,16­January 29,16    ● Lecture 2  ○ Important biological molecules  ■ Inorganic   ● No carbon containing molecules formed by ionic bonding   ○ Example  ■ Water  ● An example polar molecule  ● Considered universal solvent   ■ Salts  ■ Bases  ■ Organic  ● Carbon and hydrogen containing molecules formed by covalent  bonding   ○ Example  ■ Macromolecules   ● Proteins   ● Nucleic acids   ● Carbohydrates   ● Lipids  ○ Composition of cells tables 1.1 and 1.2  ■ Bulk of cell is water   ● 70%  ■ Second major part of cell is proteins  ● 15%  ■ Third   ● Monomers   ○ Water ­inorganic compound   ■ Great solvent   ● Polar substances dissociate forming solutes  ■ Acids   ● H and some negative anion   ● Causing a negative pH   ○ Less than 7  ■ Base  ● Dissociate to HO and a cation   ● Casing a positivity pH   ○ Greater than 7  ■ Salts are neutral   ● Na and Cl  ○  pH equal to ­log[H ion]  ○ organic compounds   ■ The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule known as a carbon  Skeleton   ■ Functional groups are responsible for most of the chemical properties of.  A particular organic compound  ■ Table 2.4   ● Hydroxyl   ○ Lipids and carbohydrates  ● Amino   ○ Proteins  ● Ester  ○ Bacteria and eukaryotic plasma membranes  ● Ether   ○ Archaea plasma membranes  ● Sulfhydryl   ○ Energy metabolism and protein structure   ● Carboxyl  ○ Organic acids  ● Phosphate  ○ ATP, DNA   ● We maintain ourselves with a process called homeostasis   ○ We maintain at pH 7  ○ Archaea like pH 2  ○ Some things grow at pH 2 at 100​ ● How do we form macromolecules  ○ Monomers Join by dehydration synthesis or condensation reactions   ○ Fig 2.8  ● Found in all cells that are living  ○ Proteins   ○ Carbohydrates  ○ Lipids   ○ Nucleic acids  ● Functions and Properties  ○ Carbohydrates  ■ Starts as a sugar   ● Glucose and fructose go through dehydration synthesis to from  sucrose and water  ● Can be reversed through hydrolysis   ■ Only finding Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen   ● In this ratio  ○ CH​2​  ● Hexose C​H​ 0.   6​ 12​6​ ○ Example:   ■ Glucose, fructose and Galactose are isomers they  have the same chemical make up just in a if fervent  orientation   ● Pentose C5​ 10​ 5 ​ple: Ribose   ● C,H22​ 11​ a disaccharide with two linked sugars know as sucrose   ○ Polysaccharide are two linked sugars  ○ Oligosaccharides are more than two sugars  ● Important note  ○ Every time a sugar is added water is formed through the  dehydration synthesis  ○ Polymers v.s. macromolecules   ■ x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x­x   ● Allx are glucose molecules   ● Bond formed between them is an eth​r­O­C​bond) linkage with  a directional linkage   ○ Alpha 1­4 linkage  ■ An ether linkage between the first carbon on the  first carbon ring and the 4 carbon on the second  carbon ring going on the bottom   ● Example  ○ Starch and amylose is done only  with alpha 1­4 linkage  ○ Beta 1­4 linkage   ■ An ether linkage between the first carbon on the  first carbon ring and the 4 carbon on the second  carbon ring going on the top  ● Example   ○ Cellulose is done only with beta 1­4  linkage   ○ We can make fibers with this   ○ Lipids  ■ Simple lipids  ● Fats or triglyceride   ○ Glycerol and fatty acids   ● Saturated fats have hydrogens on all the carbons  ○ Solid at room temperature   ■ Example  ● Butter   ● Crisco, vegetable shortening  ● Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds   ○ Causing it to bend at the double bond  ○ More liquid and healthy   ■ Example  ● Olive oil  ● Good for storage of energy and also cell walls  ● Functional group is a carboxylic acid with. A long carbon structure  with an ester linkage between the glycerol fatty acids  ○ Known as a triglycerides due to the three fatty acid chains  ■ Phospholipid   ● C­H­O­Phosphorus  ● Polar heads with nonpolar tail   ○ Polar head   ■ Hydrophilic   ● Likes water  ○ Nonpolar tail   ■ Hydrophobic   ● Hates water   ○ Forms lipid bilayers   ■ If saturated the membrane is immobile   ■ If unsaturated the membrane moves more  ● Cholesterol is a Steroid  ○ Fig 2.11  ○ Found in a eukaryotic beings bacteria don't have much if  any present  ○ Protein   ■ N­C­C  ● Structure, transport, membrane, metabolic enzymes,   ● Fig 2.12  ● Building blocks are amino acids  ○ Table 2.5   ○ Glycine  ○ Alanine   ○ Cysteine   ■ Important structure to know  ○ Isoleucine   ■ Nonpolar  ○ Glutamic acid   ■ Polar  ○ Lysine  ● Displays steiro chemistry in the form of chirality aka enantiomers   ○ Example  ■ Hands   ■ L for left and D for right  ■ L are more common in biology  ■ Figure 2.13  ● Peptide bonds formed by dehydration synthesis   ○ Fig 2.15  ○ Primary   ■ Polypeptide strand   ● All of the amino acids in a strand   ● Example  ○ X­y­u­x­t  ○ Secondary   ■ Comes about from hydrogen bonds   ● coil to make alpha helix Or make beta  pleated sheets   ○ Tertiary   ■ 3D structures  ● Fold around self   ● Has a directionality   ○ One end has an amino end on one  side and a carboxylic Acid on the  other end   ● Keeping shape   ○ Uses disulfide bonds to make sulfide  bridges   ○ Uses ionic bonds   ○ Uses hydrophobic interactions   ○ Uses Hydrogen bonds  ○ Quaternary  ■ Two or more polypeptides in their folded states   ■ X­X  ■ &​   ● Known as a heterodimer  ● Hemoglobin is a alpha 2 beta 2 heterodimer  ○ With one amino acid change in one  subunit of hemoglobin you have  sickle cell anemia   ■ It doesn't always change the  function but it can   ■ &​​­&​​   ● Known as a heterotetramer  ● Conjugated proteins    ○ Proteins and small macromolecules   ■ Results in glycoproteins and lipoproteins   ○ Nucleic acids  ■ DNA   ● Has thymine not uracil   ■ RNA   ● Basic elements found  ○ C H O N P  ● Doesn't have the base thymine it has uracil   ■ Basic structure  ● Nucleotide  ○ Phosphate bonded to a sugar which is bonded to a base   ■ If the ribose is missing a OH group it results in  Deoxyribose resulting in DNA  ■ This base determines the type of nucleotide   ■ Purines­ has two rings  ● Adenine  ● Guanine  ■ Pyrimidines  ● Cytosine  ● Thymine or uracil   ■ Bonding rules   ● Apples on Trees  ○ Adenine bonds to Thymine  ● Gas in Cars  ○ Cytosine bonds to Guanine   ● Nucleoside   ○ Just the base and sugar  ● ATP  ○ Adenosine Triphosphate  ○ Has ribose adenine and 3 phosphate groups   ■ The breaking of the phosphate groups results in  energy   ● ADP  ○ Adenosine Diphosphate  ● Lecture 3­chap 3  ○ Some metric units of length  ■ 1 meter is equal to   ● 39.4 inches  ● 3.28 feet  ■ 1 centimeter   ● .01 meter   ● .39 inch  ■ Millimeter   ● 1/100 meter  ■ Micrometer  ● 1/1000000 meter  ○ 10^­6  ● .0000394 inch  ■ Nanometer  ● 1/1000000000 meter  ○ 10^­9  ○ Figure 3.2   ○ Size   ■ Tick 1 mm  ■ Red blood cell 4. Micrometer   ■ E.coli bacteria  1 micrometer  ■ Virus 50 nanometer  ■ DNA 50 nanometers  ○ Microscopy the instruments  ■ Magnification =Objective lens X ocular lens   ● Max 1­2000X for light microscope   ■ Resolution   ● The ability of lenses to distinguish fine detail and structure  ● Ordinary light microscope Resolution parameter is around .2 um  ■ Curtail light   ● Bending or refractive index  ● Fig 3.3   ● This is drones by adding immersion oil   ○ Types of microscope  ■ Direct light   ● Energy   ○ White light   ● Type   ○ Bright field microscopy   ● Use   ○ Stain specimens  ■ Reflective light   ● Energy   ○ White light  ● Type   ○ Dark field microscopy  ● Use  ○ Place an opaque disk so that there is a dark background  allowing more detail to be seen with difficult to be seen   ■ EX   ● Syphilis  ■ Direct and reflective   ● Cream of the crop microscope  ● Energy  ○ White light  ● Type  ○ Phase contrast  ● Use  ○ enhances the contrast  ○ Has a diffraction plate and annular diaphragm  ■ Fluorescence   ● Energy   ○ Uv light  ● Type   ○ Fluorescence  ● Use  ○ Cells stained with dyes know as fluorochromes  ■ Confocal   ● Energy   ○ Laser light   ● Type   ○ UV  ● Use  ○ More detail inside  ○ 3D image   ○ Takes  small pictures at various planes that reform later in  the computer  ■ Electron microscopy  ● Energy   ○ Electrons   ● Type  ○ Transmission, tunneling and scanning   ● Use   ○ Transmission   ■ Magnification 10­100000X  ■ Resolution 2.5 nm  ● Sees inside  ● Has a heavy metal stain to attract the  electrons  ○ Scanning   ■ 1000­10000X   ■ Resolution 10nm   ● Sees outside  ● Has a heavy metal coating with gold  catching the reflected specimens  ○ Staining methods  ■ Be familiar with smear and staining procedure  ■ Simple stains  ● Have one stain added to it   ■ Differential   ● Used to distinguish groups of microorganisms   ○ Gram stain  ■ Differentiation between gram positive and gram  negative   ■ Crystal violet   ● Purple dye  ● Gram positive  ■ Iodine   ● Mordant  ○ Forces the dye into the cells  ■ Alcohol   ● Decolorization   ■ Safranin  ● Counterstain  ○ Gram negative  ○ Acid­fast stain   ■ Mycobacterium    ● Positive acid fast   ○ Examples  ■ Mycobacterium leprae  ■ Causes leprosy   ■ Mycobacterium tuberculosis  ■ Causes tuberculosis  ■ Mycobacterium smegmatis  ● Stains positive because of the mycolic acid  in the cell walls  ■ Special stains   ● Fig 3.14  ● Negative staining   ○ Good for seeing capsulized cells   ● Endosperm staining   ○ Makes endospores clearer  ○ Common bacteria used in the test  ■ Bacillus  ● Aerobic  ○ Must have oxygen  ■ Clostridium    ● Anaerobic  ○ No oxygen required  ● Flagella staining   ○ Pronounces the flagella of bacteria    


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.