Intro to Psychological Science Week 1 Notes Winter Quarter
Intro to Psychological Science Week 1 Notes Winter Quarter PSYCH 1001 - 02
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Matthew Stein Oakley on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1001 - 02 at University of Denver taught by UNI Staff in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Commonly used research designs: - The Case Study - Naturalistic observation - The survey (are not experiments) - The experiment o A methodology for determining causation o KEY COMPONENTS: Random assignment to groups Perform a manipulation Psychology’s Perspectives - -Freudian (Psychoanalytic) o Theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. -The goal of psychoanalysis is to make the unconscious mind CONSCIOUS. - Humanist o Emphasizes the study of the whole person through eyes of observer and person doing the behaving - Behaviorist o Focuses on study of peoples’ actions, emotions and thoughts - Social-cultural o How behavior is affected by their surroundings - Cognitive o Study of mental processes – attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, creativity and thinking - Neuroscience o Study of the nervous system, including brain and spinal cord and networks of sensory nerve cells called neurons. - Behavioral genetics o Family studies, twin studies, adoption studies o Behavior based off genetic vs. environment components - Evolutionary o Memory, perception, language are adaptions as the functional products of natural selection Neuroscience Perspective - The neuron (we have billions) o The machine that we are is simply a collection of neurons Cell body (cells life support center) Dendrites (receive messages from other cells) Axon (passes messages from the cell body to other neurons, muscles, glands) Neural impulse (electrical signal traveling down the axon) Myelin sheath (covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses) Terminal branches of axon (form junctions with other cells) Don’t fall for confirmation bias - the tendency to interpret new evidence as confirmation of one's existing beliefs or theories. One should design experiments to not only prove theory but able to be disproved. Illusory Correlation We only remember information that supports our hypothesis and forget about the information that doesn’t align -Availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person’s mind when evaluating something. Confusing correlation with causation We know that people with a college degree earn more than those with just a high school diploma. Can we conclude that going to college will increase the chance of a person earning a higher salary? o NO If A (ex. TV watching) is correlated with B (ex. Obesity) it could be due to one of 3 things: A could cause B B could cause A Some third factor could cause both Knowing that two things are associated (correlated) is very useful. Does it matter which of these is the case? -Yes, because it is only in the case where A causes B that you can get any benefit from altering A. Commonly used research designs: o The Case Study o Naturalistic observation o The survey o The experiment What is psychology? Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes It studies how we THINK, ACT, and FEEL But is it a science? What makes an approach scientific? The scientific method o An empirical observation of the world o Observations that are systematic and repeatable CS Lewis, “There is one thing, and only one thing in the universe which we know more about than we can learn from external observation.” -Humans are driven to seek information and find relationships. - This innate curiosity also makes us prone to wrong conclusions and sometimes horrible decisions. Intuitive errors we are prone to make: Perceiving order in random events o Gambler’s fallacy The Availability Heuristic o Being exposed to many articles of plane crashes opposed to car crashes gives us the illusion that flying is more dangerous.
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