PSYS 371 Week 3 Notes
PSYS 371 Week 3 Notes PSYS 371
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Taylor on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYS 371 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Jim Rohrer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Applied Behavior Analysis in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
PSYS 371 Applied Behavior Analysis 01/19/2016 ▯ WEEK 1 ▯ What is behavior? “Behavior is any muscular, glandular, or electrical activity of an organism.” Anything a person says or does o Pay attention to the details. Are they saying one thing, but meaning another? ▯ Behavior deficits vs. excesses What is a behavior deficit? o Not enough of the “Target Behavior” What is a behavior excess? o Too much of the “Target Behavior” o Who defines behavior as excessive or deficient? What is the reason for the excess behavior? You can’t just make a kid stop crying if they are afraid of something, you have to deal with the fear first. What are the ‘problems’ with each? Is the treatment the same? If you can do a behavior once, they can do it more than once. It may take a while, but they can get there. One pull-up can eventually turn into 20. ▯ What is Behavior Modification? You need to know these: The principles behind behavior modification: (Don’t need to memorize the words and definitions, but we do need to know the difference between them.) o 1. Strong emphasis on defining problems in terms of behavior that can be measured Naming the behavior that you want to change in words that can be identified and measured. Example: Kid gets in a fight, principal does not think it is a good thing, kid stood up for his classmates and himself so he thought it was a great thing. o 2. Using changes in the behavioral measure of the problem to measure effectiveness of intervention You need to know where you start, so you can measure whether the change you make is effective. o 3. Treatment techniques ALWAYS alter the environment What is environment? ▯ Environment For our purposes, environment means ANYTHING that effects that individuals behavior. It also includes things like “someone else is in the room that is making that person is nervous” or “they have to pee really bad” or “they had a fight with someone this morning so they can’t concentrate”. ▯ Historical Significance Drawing on the work of Kurt Lewin, a prominent Social Psychologist: Filed Theory (person-environment interaction effect) o You are affected by the situation and environment that you are in and vice versa…the environment and situation effects you. It is a two way street. ▯ In ABA The Environment is All-Inclusive In ABA, the environment includes everything that may influence a particular behavior: o The physical surroundings o The context of the situation o The behavior of others o The thoughts and or emotions of the individual or individuals involved in the particular behavior o “Even if someone makes a comment that an ex said three years ago that really really bothers you, it is still considered environment because it is effecting behavior in the present.” Your thought process is the real problem. o The thought process of an athlete makes a huge difference in performance. If you think you can’t do it, you probably never will because your thought process is already dooming you. o Non-athletes do this with tests in school. o Thought process is foundational to the probability of success. ▯ Environment-Behavior Interaction Think about any behavior you do o When do you perform the behavior? o Why do you perform the behavior? o To what degree does the immediate environment affect when and or why you perform that particular behavior? Why do you wear the clothes you wear? Is it weather? Are you going on a date? Is there nothing else clean? Figure out why now? Why are they getting treatment now? No person wakes up and says, “I’m a raging alcoholic and need help now” What do you do in certain situations, but not all the time and why is there a difference? Cussing like a sailor with a friend, but not at home with family. Sometimes, there is not a clear answer why you do something. ▯ Treatment techniques always alter the environment Since it is always the environment surrounding a specific behavior that leads to the performance of that behavior Then it follow that changing the environment will always change the behavior ▯ Overt Vs. Covert Behaviors Overt: Can be seen (or any senses). o Hitting o Walking o Swearing Covert: Cannot be seen. o Thinking o Plotting Can both be measured? Yes! o They need to be measured differently, but they can both be measured. ▯ Measuring overt behavior Defining the terms are key to measuring overt behavior More on this later… ▯ How might you measure a covert behavior? I can’t measure your thoughts, but you can measure your own thoughts o Example: How angry (or happy, or sad) are you? You can rate your level of anger, happiness, or sadness o Set up some kind of scale that the individual can measure their thoughts on different levels. We can use this thought process as markers so we can work on changing the behavior before it gets out of hand. From this, we can help the individual recognize certain behaviors that will eventually lead to the point of no return so they can stop them before it happens. ▯ Outcome of behavior(s) Is the “outcome” actually h=behavior? NO The kid with the green hair. His “green hair” is not his behavior, but it is an outcome of his behavior Your “A” or “F: is not your behavior, but your grade is definitely an outcome of your behavior o The behavior that leads to the outcome of the behavior is the behavior. ▯ Summary Behaviors What are they? They are generalizations o A 4 grade LD class o Housewives of New Jersey How accurate are they? They are not necessarily accurate, but they do tend to be reliable o Accuracy vs. Reliability How do they differ from “outcome of behaviors?” o I buy into the “summarizing” via my own experience o Summary behaviors are not the same as outcome behaviors. Summary behaviors are your generalization based on your past, but outcome behaviors are different… ▯ Do Generalizations Lead to Labeling? Is labeling bad?? Yes and no o Labels are mental shortcuts; you have a notion of what is going to happen based on experience and you assume that it will follow the same path. ▯ Stimuli Stimuli stimulates o What stimulates you? What exactly does stimulation mean to you? What gets you going? This is important because we get this idea when we are working with other people that it is only one thing that stimulates the behavior; but in reality, it could be many things that stimulate that same behavior. o What is it in your immediate environment that stimulates your behavior. o What is it in your immediate environment that stimulates your behavior Note the direct relationship between the stimulant and the environment ▯ Chapter 29 ▯ Historical Perspective Sigmund Freud (psychoanalytic) Ivan Pavlov (classical) John B. Watson (behaviorism) Joseph Wolpe (desensitization) Hans Eysenck (classical/behaviorism) B. F. Skinner (operant) Albert Ellis (REBT) Beck (CBT) ▯ You will need to know some of these people for the field exam. Freud: o Like the Donald Trump of this day. Everyone knew he was crazy, but he had some things he needed to say. He didn’t say it in the best way, but he was good at getting his point across to the media of the day. o He was a medical doctor who worked with a lot of women with anxiety issues. He came up with his notion of psychoanalytic theory from this. Psychosexual terms; anal stage and so on. These terms got him in trouble a lot, so he didn’t get a lot of residence in Europe…so he came to the united states. o United states loved the notion of something new and innovated. He moved to pedal his type of psychology. People used the newspapers to spread the news about his ideas along with different fairs as well. o Most of the early psychology programs were developed around Freudian psychology because they wanted the new and improved ways of psychology. Once something starts, it is hard to change. Psychodynamic theory was founded and was the main resource. o Back in Europe, they still think he is crazy. o Behaviorism became a field of psychology to basically oppose the psychoanalytic theory. Behaviorists: Cared about your behavior in the present tense without caring about your past. Although it was the opposite of Freudian psychology, it was born because of it. Pavlov: o Russian guy with the salivating dogs experiment o Pairing behavior change with some kind of physiological response to get them to work together so it becomes an automated response. o Paid attention to desensitization o Understanding both the behavior change and the physiological change can help you understand the action Skinner: o Rats in the maze and rewarding them to see how they change according to the amount of punishment or reward they got. Ellis: o Rational Behavior Therapy o Interaction between thought process and behavior Beck: o Founder of Cognitive Behavior Therapy o Focused on depression and look at depression in relation to the physiology of depression o Notion of cognitive behavior therapy is looking at the brain, the needs, classical conditioning, thought processes, etc. ▯ Politics Psychoanalytic versus Behaviorism Europe vs USA American Psychology Behaviorism loses ▯ Traditional Applications Development disabilities Child rearing o This was the primary approach through education and special ed programs, but not psychology. ▯ Psychology and Politics are Interesting Bedfellows The age accountability (i.e. lower taxes) The emergence of ‘behaviorally-based’ program evaluations The emergence of CBT o Cognitive Behavior Therapy o The notion of behavior therapy has really taken off because it is pretty effective and measurable. You are looking at a specific behavior, all along the way being able to document the change, and then figure out what works and what doesn’t. o Psychodynamic therapy is really hard to measure even with improvement. o The age of accountability has gone way too far nowadays (ISTEP), but as professionals, it is important that we are accountable so our patients actually get better. ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ Current Applications Parenting DD Behavior Therapy CBT Self- mgt Self-improvement Gerontology Speech/language therapy Sports Community analysis Business/Marketing Politics o Assignment #1 Example: Restaurants keep the temperature in the room super cold to make sure you want to buy a large, warm meal. o Think about how each of these subsections use this approach to persuade others. ▯ Integrative Approach Biology Neurology Classical Conditioning CBT Behaviorism and Psychodynamic Theory in 2015 Behaviorism and Humanistic Theory in 2015 ▯ ▯ Assignment Review Consider the many possible applications of behavior modification, other than those used in teaching and various therapies. Your assignment is to investigate one non-traditional application of behavior modification and report your findings. Consider history, social context, “political correctness”, and perhaps ethical issues in your discussion. BTW, this is intended to be a few paragraphs/one page assignment, not a thesis. ▯ WEEK 2 (Chapters 20 and 21) ▯ Assessment: Initial Considerations Direct Behavioral Assessment ▯ Behavior Assessment: Initial Considerations What is assessment? o Collection & analysis of data Why assess? o -to identify & describe target behavior o -to identify possible causes of behavior o -to select treatment strategies to modify behavior o -to evaluate treatment outcome Done initially and throughout the whole process of that interaction. Usually, there is more assessment initially. Assessment is trying to gather information about the environment and the individual. ▯ Behavior Assessment vs Traditional Assessment Measured vs anecdotal If you ask a person how they have been doing this week, usually people will only tell you how their morning went instead of their whole week. Someone could have had a great week so far, but a horrible morning. They will then answer that they have had a horrible week because of what happened that morning. It is not just what they remembered the most from the week, it is anecdotal or most recent. ▯ Target Behavior Why is identification of target behavior crucial? o In order to measure precisely o In order to measure something, we need to pick something specific to measure it. What are you measuring? o Don’t just describe an action as “better” or “worse”. How do you know whether it is better? Better than what? Yesterday? Or 6 months ago? o When working with folks with depression, how do you help them understand when they are no longer depressed? When they get better? What does that mean? With depression, sometimes a person can get better for a day, but that does not mean the problem is fixed because that can change 6 months from now. o Identifying the problem in ways that you can measure becomes very important. o Someone with a bad attitude: How would you put their behavior into words to help them change their attitude? For example: The word bullying is a very broad or nonspecific word. 4 Phases of Behavior Program Screening/intake o Why is screening important? To determine if the individual can benefit from therapy Sometimes screening cannot be done: if you live in a small town and you are the only option for them, you aren’t going to recommended someone who can help them more who is down the street because you are the only option. Also, if a person can only come to an appointment on Thursdays at 9am, they are going to get whoever is there at that time. o Why is intake important? To determine if we are the best agency to meet this client’s needs To determine if I am best therapist to meet this client’s needs More specifically, can they benefit from the therapy that you offer at your office or whether or not you are the best person to help them with there problem. Is there someone who would do a better job? Baseline o Two sources of info for baseline assessment: indirect and Direct Assessment o Indirect assessment: information gathered from other sources, Anything that you yourself are not doing. Interview with client If you yourself are doing the interview, why is it an indirect assessment? Because the client is giving you the information. You aren’t assessing them on your own, you just have to believe what they say is true. Questionnaires Same thing as an interview. The client is giving you the information personally. Role playing Round about way of figuring out the problem. Info from other professionals It would seem that this is reliable information, but there are many factors that could make their information faulty. They may have had a problem working with this client. Or they may have been using a different technique to get the information, so they get a different outcome. There records could be out of date…for example: some students are better college students than they were high school or middle school students. To assess the present day student, you can’t just look at their high school or middle school transcripts. They are a different kind of student now. Client self-monitoring Going to the doctor and them asking you, “How long have you felt pain?” “How many times have you fainted in the past month?” The patient usually has a ball park answer. o There is a problem with indirect assessment: Why? To what degree can you trust the data? Usually not the best way to measure anything because it is secondary information o The Problem With All Behavioral Assessments: Reactivity is the HUGE Issue. (Reactivity is a question on 3 of 6 tests, so you need to REALLY understand it.) What is “reactivity”? When someone changes their behavior because they know their behavior is being monitored. Reactivity: When you are being watched, you change your behavior. Even if you are the one watching yourself. If you are trying to stop biting your nails, so you decide to write down every time you bite them, you will automatically decrease the amount of times that you do so because you know you have to write it down. Does Reactivity always occur? Yes, (almost) always. What can be done to reduce reactivity effects? Awareness. The problem with this is that your behavior will change for a little while, but then you will think it is no longer a problem because you have been writing it down and you probably don’t do it as much. You may start to see it as being no longer a problem, so you stop trying to stop the problem. The behavior goes back to normal after that. If a person really doesn’t know they are being watched, reactivity can be avoided. But stealth observation rarely happens in this field because you need informed consent. If a client/person is aware at all that you are assessing them, reactivity will occur. Being aware that this is a factor will help you reduce the effects is has on your results. Time really does affect reactivity and so does comfort level. Assessment takes time, but before you give someone a treatment to help a problem, you need enough time to do so. Pretests and protests: being evaluated on how much you approve. o Accurate Baseline Assessment Is Key: Should it be done? Can it be done? Who should do it? What is best treatment strategy? Is it working to change targeted behavior? Accurate reporting/graphing is both prompt and reinforcer Reporting data may change behavior w/out more treatment What kind of information are you trying to collect? Is it reasonable to collect it in that way? Who should be collecting? Need to find a way to record data that a person will actually do. There will be a lot of self-recording during this process, so it needs to be something they are comfortable with and something that you can get valuable information out of. o Direct Assessment: Direct assessment: behavior that I/you (i.e. the therapist) actually witnesses myself/himself/herself. When you yourself are doing the assessing. What to record? Topography: “The form of a behavior” Everything involved in the whole set of actions included in “the behavior” Example: Brushing teeth o Get brush, hold brush, wet brush. o Get toothpaste, open toothpaste, apply toothpaste to brush o Etc, etc, etc. o Obviously different from 8 grade geography class. o A better definition would be “everything there is about the behavior from the beginning to the end.” o The biggest mistake we make is assuming the person knows things that they do not. When you are teaching a child to brush their teeth for the first time, you can’t just say “get the toothbrush out of the medicine cabinet, put toothpaste on, and brush your teeth” o You have to explain where the cabinet is, how to open the tooth paste, where to put the toothpaste on the toothbrush, how to turn the water on, and many other steps. Amount: Frequency (How often): When working with people who are quitting smoking: tells you that they cut down to one cigarette a day. Wife comes and says “he’s ben smoking 30 times a day.” in reality, he had been smoking the same cigarette 30 times throughout the day. Takes a few puffs at a time and then puts it out and saves it. Both are right in this situation, but you have to be specific about what you are measuring: number of cigarettes are the amount of times you smoke a day. Duration (How long): how long is the behavior for? You have to define what you mean by that. Keep the record of the number or times and the duration of each of those times to see if there is a pattern established or not. Intensity (How powerful): the hardest one to measure. The force of the thing: it is a difficult skill set to teach intensity. Working with a girl who is autistic, she is a screamer and she screamed a lot. She started how with 100 screams a day and we are working towards reducing the screaming. She eventually got down to 5 scream a day, but it doesn’t mean it is better. When she screamed 100 times a day, it was only for a few seconds, but now that she is only screaming 5 times a day, she was screaming for a hour straight. Was she getting better because the number of scream went down? No, it wasn’t actually progress. Stimulus Control: What is it in the environment that is stimulating the behavior? Latency: The time between the stimulus to the behavior or the stimulus and the response. Example: kid falling/kid crying o Example: a little kid falls and scrapes his knee. He continues to play with friends for a few hours without it bothering him, but as soon as he gets home and see mom, he starts crying because he has a boo boo. o We do this as well: if we have a stressful day all day, but we are nice to everyone we see until we get home and then we are hell on wheels. Quality: The “quality” of the behavior. o How “we’’”; How “competently”; How close to “perfectly” is the behavior performed. o One of the mistakes we make is that we don’t build in quality as a measure enough in a plan. o We have to find a way to build in the quality expectations from the beginning. It is hard to explain: Learning to sweep the kitchen floor at a minimal level, compared to sweeping it completely and well. Need to explain as expectations from the beginning because the person you are trying to ”train” will not understand what is expected of them if you reward an initial response. They may think that the reward means they don’t have to improve the task. o Treatment o Follow up How to record? o Continuous recording What is it? Recording every single occurrence of the behavior Pros and Cons Thorough. Cumbersome. Costly. Not practical. Procedures: Video Recording (Pros and Cons) Mistake: we believe that we can actually catch every single instance of a behavior, but this is impossible. o Interval recording What is it? Recording the behavior every____minutes. (i.e at a specific time interval). Pros and Cons? Easy and reasonably practical. May not “catch” behavior at best time. Procedures? 7 seconds/7 minutes o Time-sample recording What is it? Sampling behavior at specified and varied times to capture the behavior (and non-behavior) in a variety of environments. Pros and Cons? Most likely to be valid/reliable; Can be time- consuming; Needs to be over a significant timeframe. Procedures? KEY: WHEN??? This is more intentional than interval measurements because you pick out specific times you are doing the measurements. Ex: If you are watching bullying behavior, rather than just doing random and hoping for the best, you start off by doing morning, noon, and night measurements. As you start to see patterns, that is when you can change your baseline. When you start to see the pattern of bullying seems to happen on MWF afternoons, but happening less on TR mornings. You would do more base lining on MWF afternoons to record the behavior, but also do TR mornings to figure out why they aren’t doing it. Figuring out why a person is not doing a behavior is sometimes more important than figuring out why they do the behavior. IOR: Inter-Observer Reliability o What is it?: It is increasing the same observations of everyone. Increasing the reliability of recording the behavior. We do this by training the recorders so everyone is at least on the same page. You may not get every single detail, but you have similar enough responses. o Why is it important? o How can IOR be increased? o Observation/Recording Exercise Behavior Recording Assignment o Select a 10-15 minute video clip. Can be a mainstream movie, youtube, or home video. Cite the source so we can access it as an example in class. o Select and define target behavior to be base-lined. o Select and define baseline procedure. o Determine, create, and implement data recording procedures. o Baseline and record data. o Briefly discuss what conclusions you might draw from the baseline data. o Briefly discuss what you learned from this assignment. o If you want FULL credit (assignment and attendance) the completed assignment MUST be submitted online by 11:59 PM on Mon 1/25/16. ▯ WEEK 3 ▯ No class Monday. ▯ Recording Issues What to record? Frequency? Duration? Latency? Intensity? Quality? How to record? ▯ Examples: Frequency? Duration? Latency? Intensity? Quality? o https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6j129VKDxI (tic kid) o http://watchcartoonsonline.eu/watch/spongebob-squarepants- s1-ep2a-bubblestand/ (sponge bob) o https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=djfDZrm9KZs&feature=youtu.be (political rant) ▯ ▯
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