PSY 315 Week 2 Notes
PSY 315 Week 2 Notes PSY 315 - M001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Raymond on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 315 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by T. Palfai in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Human Behavior in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
CLASS 1.25 NOTES 1.27 CLASS Important Information and Definitions 1/25 Class • There was a huge decrease in patients in mental hospitals following the use of psychoactive drugs • Agonist: any substance that is capable of activating the channel • Antagonist: any substance that interferes with activating the channel o Competitive: competes for receptor sites (blocks it) o Non-competitive: doesn’t affect receptor sites • Body compartments: the space enclosed by a membrane (drugs cross membrane to get to brain) • Ion trapping: o Polarized drugs will not be absorbed; drugs don’t ionize when the pH in its surroundings are the same (acidic or alkaline) o Aspirin (highly acidic), swallowed into stomach, doesn’t ionize, moves into blood quickly, in blood it will ionize and won’t get out of blood (b/c it ionized) • pH (alkaline v. acid): blood is alkaline and stomach is acidic Pros and Cons of Administrations Administration Pros Cons Oral Easy, economical, safe, can Slow absorption, sometimes digested administration recall the drug by vomiting before reach the site of action, reduced in effect due to metabolizatoin Injection (IV) Control dosage levels, short Can’t be recalled, more severe adverse delay in onset of effects reactions (IA) Control dosage, short delay in Pressure of the heartbeat, much more onset of effects, used to localize dangerous than IV a drug effect or dye a particular organ or tissue (IM) Rate faster than oral routes, Rate slower than IV, avoid hitting a blood vessel (SC) Reduces chance of hitting a Variations in blood supply may make vein, less painful than IM, the amount of the dose absorbed steady absorption rate erratic and unpredictable (IP) Dissolves evenly in the High risk of infection, placement is peritoneal fluid difficult, risk of puncturing the intestines (IT) Used for localized anesthesia (IC) Used for animal research Risk of injuring vital parts of the brain are high Inhalation Very fast absorption into Dosage control is difficult, they exit the bloodstream bloodstream quickly as well, must inhale drug for as long as the effect is desired Surface Ease of administration Absorption is slow and difficult Suppository Useful if a drug can’t withstand Absorption is somewhat incomplete the acid of gastric juices, or if and unpredictable patient is vomiting or unconscious 1/27 Class • conjugation: adding glucoronic acid • mixed function oxidases (MFO enzymes): o Heme: carries oxygen o Protein: attracts drugs • Enzyme induction: if you drink alcohol every day, enzyme levels adjust and increase; if you then stop drinking, the extra enzymes will eat up steroids until they re-adjust • Excretion principle organ: kidney o Functional unit: nephron artery, vein, Bowman’s capsule o Chorinic villai • Example questions on dosage: o How safe is LSD if ED99=0.05mg and the LD1=1.2g? o HTC=1.2g/.05mg= 24,000 o The dosage of LSD that kills 1% of people is 24,000 times higher than the dosage it takes to cause the desired effect in 99% of the people. LSD is a very safe drug.
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