Chemistry Chapter 3
Chemistry Chapter 3 CHEM 1110 - 02
University of Memphis
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CHEM 1110 - 02
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Beckwood on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1110 - 02 at University of Memphis taught by Henry Kurtz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 3 Light Electromagnetic waves o Amplitude – intensity, brightness o Wavelength – distance between waves (nm = 10 m or A = 10 m) -10 o Frequency (v) – rate of waves passing (Hz = 1 cycle/sec 1 Hz = 1 s )-1 o V * wavelength = c 8 C = speed of light (3*10 m/s) Spectrum o Gamma rays to radio and larger o Continuous or line Diffraction Electrons diffract when shot into crystals o Destructive Interference: Path’s lengths differ by wavelength/2 o Constructive Interference: Have equal path lengths Waves out of phase make dark spots; in phase make bright spots Photons Photoelectric Effect – Einstein o Light and photons Planck o E = hv = hc/(wavelength) o H = Planck’s constant (6.626 * 10 -3Js) Quantum View Bohr Model – not good Quantized values for energy – energy levels ΔE = hv Ground state – lowest level Excited state – highest level Wave Mechanics DeBroglie’s Equation o Wavelength = h/(mv) Wavefuctions o The square of a wave function give the probability if finding an electron in a particular infinitesimally small volume of space in an atom Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle o Cannot simultaneously know exact location and energy o (Δx)(Δp) > h/(4π) Quantum Mechanics State of system (electrons) is given by the Schrodinger Equation, where Ψ is the Wave Function: o HΨ = EΨ, where Ψ is the Wave Function |Ψ| represents a probability density – distribution map Electron wavefunctions are called orbitals Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions Can be characterized by three quantum numbers (indices) Atomic Orbital n = Principal QM o Represents size – whole integers (n = 1,2,3,4…) l = Orbital Angular Momentum QM o Represents shape – Positive integers [l = 0,1,2,3…(n-1)] ml = Magnetic QM o Represents orientation – integer m 1 0, + or – 1, + or -2, … + or – l Shells n = 1 l = 0, m1= 0 (s = orbital) 1s n = 2 l = 0, m1= 0 2s l = 1, m1= -1,0,1 (p = orbital) 2p n = 3 l = 0, m1= 0 3s l = 1, m1= -1,0,1 3p l = 2, m1= -2,-1,0,1,2 (d = orbital) 3d Energy Levels of Hydrogen Atom The energy increases as n gets larger As l gets larger, m gets larger Excitation and Radiation Electrons absorb energy and excited to unstable energy levels. Light is emitted as electron falls back to lower energy levels. More Orbital Info Shapes o s = spherical o p = dumbbell o d = ?? th 4 Quantum Number o Spin o m s -1/2,+1/2
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