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Chemistry Chapter 3

by: Courtney Beckwood

Chemistry Chapter 3 CHEM 1110 - 02

Courtney Beckwood
University of Memphis

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About this Document

These are the notes for Chapter 3 of our Chemistry Lecture, which covers The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
General Chemistry I Lecture
Henry Kurtz
Class Notes
Chemistry, Courtney Beckwood, memphis
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Beckwood on Sunday January 31, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1110 - 02 at University of Memphis taught by Henry Kurtz in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.

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Date Created: 01/31/16
Chapter 3 Light  Electromagnetic waves o Amplitude – intensity, brightness o Wavelength – distance between waves (nm = 10 m or A = 10 m) -10 o Frequency (v) – rate of waves passing (Hz = 1 cycle/sec  1 Hz = 1 s )-1 o V * wavelength = c 8  C = speed of light (3*10 m/s)  Spectrum o Gamma rays to radio and larger o Continuous or line Diffraction  Electrons diffract when shot into crystals o Destructive Interference: Path’s lengths differ by wavelength/2 o Constructive Interference: Have equal path lengths  Waves out of phase make dark spots; in phase make bright spots Photons  Photoelectric Effect – Einstein o Light and photons  Planck o E = hv = hc/(wavelength) o H = Planck’s constant (6.626 * 10 -3Js) Quantum View  Bohr Model – not good  Quantized values for energy – energy levels  ΔE = hv  Ground state – lowest level  Excited state – highest level Wave Mechanics  DeBroglie’s Equation o Wavelength = h/(mv)  Wavefuctions o The square of a wave function give the probability if finding an electron in a particular infinitesimally small volume of space in an atom  Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle o Cannot simultaneously know exact location and energy o (Δx)(Δp) > h/(4π) Quantum Mechanics  State of system (electrons) is given by the Schrodinger Equation, where Ψ is the Wave Function: o HΨ = EΨ, where Ψ is the Wave Function  |Ψ| represents a probability density – distribution map  Electron wavefunctions are called orbitals Hydrogen Atom Wavefunctions  Can be characterized by three quantum numbers (indices)  Atomic Orbital  n = Principal QM o Represents size – whole integers (n = 1,2,3,4…)  l = Orbital Angular Momentum QM o Represents shape – Positive integers [l = 0,1,2,3…(n-1)]  ml = Magnetic QM o Represents orientation – integer m 1 0, + or – 1, + or -2, … + or – l Shells n = 1 l = 0, m1= 0 (s = orbital) 1s n = 2 l = 0, m1= 0 2s l = 1, m1= -1,0,1 (p = orbital) 2p n = 3 l = 0, m1= 0 3s l = 1, m1= -1,0,1 3p l = 2, m1= -2,-1,0,1,2 (d = orbital) 3d Energy Levels of Hydrogen Atom  The energy increases as n gets larger  As l gets larger, m gets larger Excitation and Radiation  Electrons absorb energy and excited to unstable energy levels.  Light is emitted as electron falls back to lower energy levels. More Orbital Info  Shapes o s = spherical o p = dumbbell o d = ?? th  4 Quantum Number o Spin o m s -1/2,+1/2


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